THE lands between the manor of Pennsbury and Neshaminy creek, comprehended in Bristol township at the time when it was erected in 1692, were originally seated by twenty individuals, viz., William Clark, Richard Noble, Jacob Pelisson, Samuel Allen, James Boyden, John Swart, John Spencer, Thomas Holme, Edmund Bennet, Griffith Jones, Francis Richardson, Christopher Taylor, William Haige, Thomas Bowman, Thomas Rudyard, William Dungan, Mordecai Bowden, Clement Dungan, Thomas Dungan, and Richard Lundy. Clark received his grant from Governor Andros in 1679. It was located at the mouth of Neshaminy creek, and comprised three hundred and nine acres. He died in 1683, when his widow, Ann Clark, succeeded to this property. Richard Noble, who was appointed first sheriff of Bucks county in 1682, owned an extensive tract adjoining Clark’s on the Delaware. He landed at Salem, New Jersey, May 13, 1675, and settled west of the Delaware within a few years afterward. He was a surveyor, and held office under the Duke of York. Samuel Allen resided near the Neshaminy about a mile from its mouth. The marriage of his daughter Martha to Daniel Pegg occurred here on the 22d day of the second month, 1686; this is one of the first ceremonies of this character known to have occurred in the township. Pegg’s run and a street in Philadelphia derive their names from one of the parties most interested in this occasion.

James Boyden lived on the Neshaminy near Allen. He was (in 1682) one of the first representatives in the assembly from Bucks county. It is said that this was one of the old Swedish families who settled on the Delaware years before the inception of Penn’s colonization scheme. The following incident is related of a young girl whom the Boydens adopted and reared, and may serve to illustrate certain phases of life at this period: "It was her business to tend the cattle out of the swamps. One rainy time she was lost, and wandered in the wet three days and nights until too weak to go farther, when she lay down and cried. An Indian heard her, and carried her home. She always retained a peculiar friendship and esteem for the natives, having learned their language in her infancy."

Captain Thomas Holme, a member of the Society of Friends, was commissioned surveyor-general the 18th day of the 2d month, 1682, in which capacity he prepared and published a map of the seated lands of the province. He owned all the land in the vicinity of Newportville, and eastward along the Middletown line, a distance of several miles. The township line roads were laid out by him prior to 1695, in which year he died. The tracts of Spencer and Swart extended eastward from the Neshaminy, between those of Holme and Boyden. John Otter’s lands adjoined the creek that bears his name. Christopher Taylor, an educated gentleman, and a convert to Quakerism in 1652, emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1682 from Yorkshire, England. He was a member of the first assembly. His son Israel was granted two hundred and fifty acres in right of his father in 1692. The latter died in 1696. Edmund Bennett was an early and also an extensive land-owner, but lived in Northampton. Richard Lundy, who married Elizabeth Bennet, came to the Delaware from Boston the 19th day of the 3d month, 1682, but settled in Falls, although he owned land in Bristol. William Haige’s five hundred acres adjoined the lands of Taylor. The Dungans— Thomas, Clement, and William— were from Rhode Island. The first grant was made to William on the 4th day of the 6th month, 1682. His father, the Reverend Thomas, and brother, Clement, followed him from Rhode Island with other Welsh families. It is probable that the Dungans left Bristol, and removed to Northampton before the close of the century. All of these tracts were rectangular in shape, and extended inland from the river nearly the entire breadth of the township. With many of the first owners, purchases were not made with settlement in view, and as a transfer did not involve the sacrifice of a prospective home, a number of tracts passed into other hands within a few years. The lands of Otter, Bennet, and Jones were sold to Samuel Carpenter in 1683, and he thus became the largest landed proprietor at that time. Carpenter was a Philadelphia merchant and ship-owner, and amassed considerable wealth in the Barbadoes trade. He was the richest man in the province in 1700. He was a member of the council and assembly, treasurer of the province, and otherwise prominent in colonial affairs. He made his residence at Bristol during the last years of his life, and died in 1714. In these brief statements regarding the people who first made this township their home is comprehended their recorded history; and however interesting an extended account of their experiences as pioneers might be to the reader, the long vista of intervening years since their active existence effectually precludes the recovery of such details as form the essential features of a connected narrative.

The influx of population into this locality must have been considerable; which is sufficiently indicated by the fact that a market town was considered necessary for the comfort and convenience of the community not many years after its first settlement. The selection of sites for towns was among the earliest projects of the colonists along the Delaware; and the elevated flat on the right bank of the river at the mouth of Mill creek presented peculiar advantages, which did not escape the notice of the more enterprising and farseeing men of the county. At this time there were but two towns in the province, Philadelphia and Chester. The propriety and feasibility of a third being laid out were considerations of greater importance than would enter into the calculations of the founder of a prospective town at the present time. The project was brought to the notice of prominent men in the colony, and being received with favor, a petition was presented to the provincial council at a meeting of that body June 10, 1695, at the house of Phineas Pemberton in Falls, Governor Markham, Samuel Carpenter, Joseph Growdon, Caleb Pussey, and Phineas Pemberton being present. It was shown that the county had as yet no market town; that for this purpose the ferry opposite Burlington was regarded as a good location; that ways and streets had been projected there, "having regard to the division of divers men’s lands," and therefore requesting the governor and council, if the proposed location should be approved, to alter or confirm the streets; grant a weekly market; the liberty of wharfing and building to a convenient distance into the river and creek; that every street terminating at the banks should be a public landing; that the buildings on the bank might be so regulated as to leave sufficient space for a street at the water’s edge; that the major part of the inhabitants might have power to appoint two or more of their number to see that these regulations were observed; and also that a proper officer be appointed to seal liquid and dry measures. The authorities thus consulted were pleased to regard this as "verie reasonable," and graciously consented to the proposed action on the part of the "inhabitants and owners of land in the county of Bucks, but more especially in the township of Bucks." Phineas Pemberton was directed to prepare a draft of the town, and John White appointed "sealer" agreeably to the terms of the petition. The survey was probably made the same year (1797); and with this date the chronological record of the oldest town in Bucks county may be said to begin. In the two centuries less one decade that have elapsed since that time, many things have occurred which may interest the present generation in their recital, and are well worthy of preservation for their intrinsic value.

The importance of the place in the first quarter of the last century was derived in great measure from the location here of the seat of justice for the county. Court was held here from 1705 to 1725. The first court-house, a two-story brick building with whipping-post attached, was built in 1705. The upper floor was used as a court-room, the lower one as a prison. This building was situated on Cedar street, and the lot extended to Radcliffe. Upon the removal of the county seat to Newtown in 1725, John De Normandie purchased the property; it was transferred by him to the borough in 1772. The second floor was adapted for use as a council chamber, and the lower room used as a school-room and for the holding of elections. The burgess and council sold the property to William Kinsey in 1834, when it was removed.

The fairs and markets contributed not a little to the early importance of Bristol. Two fairs yearly were authorized by the charter, the first to be held on the 8th and 9th days of May, the other from the 29th to the 31st day of October, and their management was intrusted to the burgesses. The first mention of fairs in the borough records occurs in 1742, when Market street was decided upon as the place for the fair to be held. The rental of booths was regulated in 1747. Cattle were first exposed for sale in 1759, when they were advertised at the expense of the council. This made the fairs a greater centre of attraction than ever before. As early as 1773, there appears to have been considerable dissatisfaction among the inhabitants, and the council passed a resolution requesting the assembly to annul that clause in the charter in virtue of which fairs were held. They were continued twenty years longer, however, but in 1796, by act of the legislature, were discontinued. The building of a market-house was agitated as early as 1753, when William Buckley and John Abram DeNormandie were appointed to secure subscriptions for that purpose. At a meeting of council, December 8, 1759, the question of a location was submitted, but no decision was made, and Councilman Alexander Graydon, who was absent, was asked to decide the matter. It does not appear whether he did so or not, but in 1760 the council selected for a site the middle of Mill street at the intersection of Cedar. It was finally built in 1768, but blown down in the winter of 1773—74. John and Charles Bessonett superintended its re-erection on the same site. In the autumn of 1790, ‘William McIlvaine, John Hutchinson, Archibald NcElroy, Phineas Buckley, and Pierson Mitchell, a committee appointed to select a better location, reported in favor of the square at the crossing of Market and Cedar streets, whither the market-house was forthwith removed. It is probable that nearly all the buying and selling of staple goods in the county were done through the medium of the market and fairs for some years, until the growth of stores and shops at other points eventually deprived them of their former usefulness.

The "ferry against Burlington" was regarded as of sufficient importance to influence the location of the town. The river was at that time and for many years afterward of much greater advantage to the towns along its banks than at present. It was in 1697 the only means of communication with the outside world. This ferry was established by Samuel Clift; and upon his death in April, 1684, his executor, William Biles, leased the ferry-house for two years to Michael Hurst. The ferry was recognized by the provincial council in 1709, upon petition of John Sotcher, who owned the landing on the Pennsylvania side. The assembly of New Jersey passed a similar act in 1714. The first mention concerning it in the town records occurs in the minutes of a meeting held May 28, 1750, when a complaint was made that the public suffered "great inconvenience, and that therefore some measure for regulating the said ferry and preventing those inconveniences is of absolute necessity." It appeared that the sense of the meeting "without a dissenting voice" was that the ferry was the undoubted right of the corporation, which should therefore receive possession from the tenant. The records further state: "Patrick O’Hanlan being called in and required to hold the same as a tenant under this corporation has consented thereto and has agreed with this present town’s meeting for the use thereof for one year commencing the first day of April past at the rent of twelve pounds per annum." It would seem from subsequent developments that this arrangement was not advantageous to Mr. O’Hanlan. It appears that in September, 1753, he was in debt for the rent of nearly two years. Ennion Williams, the borough treasurer, was directed to call upon him and compel payment, if necessary. O’Hanlan appeared before the counsel in person, and stated that his profits did not amount to six pounds in the past year. He was allowed an abatement; and that the business might be made more remunerative, the following schedule of rates was adopted: "Single foot passengers, six pence, two persons at the same time, four pence, and three or more, three pence each; a single horse and rider, one shilling, and any greater number, nine pence; a single ox, one shilling three pence, and any greater number, one shilling; sheep, two pence each, hogs (alive), six pence; dead, three pence; four wheeled carriages, with two horses and one person, five shillings; two wheeled carriages with a single horse and one person, two shillings and six pence;" and in every case the rates were increased one-half after ten o’clock at night. This code of regulations remained in force under successive lessees for many years.

The Bath springs, which were known to exist as early as 1700, gave Bristol a wide celebrity and made it the most fashionable watering-place in this country. The local prominence it had for a short time maintained in legal circles was thus relinquished in favor of a central position among the pleasure resorts of cultured and wealthy people. What Saratoga and Newport are to society today, Bristol was three generations ago. The water is chalybeate in character, and was resorted to for its medicinal properties by persons from all parts of the country. Leading medical men, among others Dr. Benjamin Rush, have pronounced it to be efficient in the treatment of certain diseases, and at one time it enjoyed considerable reputation. Doctor Minnick, who owned the grounds in 1807, erected the large frame building, still standing, for the accommodation of guests at the springs. Among those who patronized him were many distinguished men. The favorable issue of the war of 1812 was celebrated by a national ball at the springs. A number of military and naval officers were present, and also the representatives of several foreign countries. Doctor Gill, a Frenchman, lived on the property in retirement after its celebrity as a watering-place began to decline. He was a member of the medical staff of the first Napoleon and accompanied him on his campaigns to Egypt and Russia.

While thus a noted place of residence for families of wealth and social position, a number of distinguished persons have from time to time lived here permanently. The famous actor, Thomas A. Cooper, was among this number; also Major Kneas, U.S.A., Captain Biddle, U.S.N., Major Lenox, Pierce Butler, James SimeEnto, Don DeOnis, Augustus Claudious, Baron Ludwig, Antoni Farcy Piquet, the DeNormandies, and others. SimeEnto was the Spanish minister. He lived on Radcliffe street in the house owned by Charles Fenton. It is related that he built a miniature fort at the foot of his grounds facing the river, upon which two small brass cannons were mounted. There were two sets of halyards upon the flagstaffs, one for the flag of Spain and the other for the national colors of this country. On a certain fourth of July occasion, William Gosline, who had charge of the munitions of war, was directed to run up the flags. He did so in such a way as to place the stars and stripes above the flag of Spain. SimeEnto inquired with some surprise why they were not run up together, upon which Gosline replied, "his country’s flag first, and those of others afterward," a sentiment which his master was generous enough to appreciate. He was recalled after some years and succeeded as minister by Don DeOnis, who took up his residence on Radcliffe street, and laid out the grounds adjoining with care and taste. It is said that the marriage by proxy of his daughter and a Spanish army officer was the first ceremony so performed in this country. It occurred at high noon in both countries, Father Hogan, of Philadelphia, officiating at Bristol. Augustus Claudious, the German consul at Philadelphia, Baron Ludwig, of Prussia, and Captain Piquet, of the French navy, as the representatives of their respective governments, added much to the wealth and respectability of the community. It is said that Joseph Bonaparte, upon his arrival in America in 1816, was very favorably impressed with several properties in the vicinity of Bristol, one of which he might have purchased but for the fact that the laws of the state prohibited a foreigner from acquiring real estate. The DeNormandies, who were once prominently identified with affairs in Bristol, were descended from Andri, who was born at Geneva in 1651, and emigrated in 1706 with his two sons John Abram and John Anthony. The family is no longer represented in this locality.

Several houses of the ante-revolutionary period have survived the condition of society under which they were built. Of the three oldest in existence at present, one, a brick building, is situated at the foot of Wood street on land belonging to John McGinley. It was occupied at one time by William Davis, a ship-builder, who built some of the fastest sailing vessels of his day. The house now owned by John McOwen on Mill street is thought to have been one of the first brick buildings erected in the borough. Another old house, which has been demolished in the present year (1887), was that of Mrs. Closson, adjoining her hotel on Mill street. It must have been a house of some note, for the assessed valuation as given in an old record was three hundred and fifty pounds, the highest sum assessed upon any of the fifty-three houses in Bristol at this day. Mr. John Gosline, chief burgess for many years, a large landowner, and prominent free-mason, lived here at the beginning of the century. These three houses are supposed to have been built prior to 1720, in which year the borough charter was granted. Among other old buildings are the Friends’ meeting-house at the corner of Market and Wood streets, and the house of Richard Corson, which was built in 1745 as a work-house, on the Beaver Dam road. The oldest hotel in the borough is the Delaware house. It was originally opened as the "George the Third," in 1765, by Charles Bessonett, a Frenchman, who settled at Bristol as early as 1730. A company of Yankee troops passed through the town at the outbreak of the revolution, and upon seeing the name of the royal sovereign against whom they were in rebellion emblazoned in so conspicuous a manner, they opened fire upon the unfortunate sign and did not desist until it was riddled with bullets. Mr. Bessonett’s next device was a fountain, and was received with popular favor. John Bessonett succeeded his father, and changed the name to that which it now bears. His son John also became proprietor. The elder Bessonett established the first line of stage-wagons from Philadelphia to New York. His advertisement was as follows: "Unparalleled speed; from Philadelphia to New York in two days, fare four dollars. Comfort and safety assured." He was assessed in 1785 for one building, two cattle, sixteen horses, one bound servant, three negro slaves, two stage-wagons, one ferry, and his occupation, his tax of three pounds one shilling being the largest of any person in the borough. The records at Doylestown show that the first petition for license to keep a public house in Bristol was presented in 1705 by Thomas Brock. The applicants for that privilege in 1728 were Henry Betz, James Moore, and Evan Harris. Patrick O’Hanlan kept the ferry-house at the foot of Mill street in 1730. The records of 1768 show that licenses were granted as follows: to Mrs. Eliza Jackson for a public house upon the site of the Closson house; to Robert Reese for the "Rising Sun," on Mill street; to John Dowdney for the "King of Prussia," at the corner of Mill and Pond streets; to Charles Bessonett for the "George the Third," at the foot of Mill street. What is now known as the Closson house was established in 1857 as the Exchange hotel by William Early. Ten different public houses have been licensed for Bristol by the courts since 1705. In 1800, with a population of five hundred and twenty-one, there were four hotels— one to every one hundred and thirty persons; with a population of six thousand in 1885, there were four hotels— one for every one thousand five hundred of the population.

Mr. Bessonett’s experience with the provincial militia has been related; but there were other occurrences during the revolution of more serious import. General Cadwallader encamped near the borough in 1776 with three thousand troops. One thousand five hundred men were billeted on the town at one time in 1777. Armed boats guarded the river from Bordentown to Philadelphia. During the occupation of the latter place by the British in 1777—78, a detachment of militia was stationed at Bristol as a protection against a threatened attack. As no hostile demonstrations were made, their discipline was allowed to relax. The favorable opportunity for an attack thus presented was not neglected by the enemy. On the morning of Good Friday, 1778, a party of British cavalry left the city and proceeded as far as Newportville, where they remained secreted in the woods until daybreak. The sentinels had no sooner been drawn in at the sound of the morning gun than they dashed into the town to the surprise and consternation of the people. A number of the principal citizens appeared at their doors only to find themselves prisoners. This was only a secondary object of the expedition, however. Several militia officers were known to be in the town, and their capture was what most interested the enemy. It is said that the American captain was in hiding in a garret. When it became apparent that their object was frustrated, they threatened to burn the mills unless a certain amount of money was paid them. At this juncture of affairs, Captain John Clark, a British officer who lived at Fairview, rode into town and protested against the destruction of the property on the ground that he was a subject of the crown and interested in its ownership. When asked where his regiment was stationed and why he was not with it, he replied that it was in the West Indies, and he was home on a furlough. This had the desired effect. A rumor was circulated in the meantime that a corps of marines from a point farther up the river had received intelligence of their presence in the county; and the troops with their prisoners retreated in all haste to the city. The prisoners were exchanged shortly afterward. Captain Clark subsequently resigned his commission and lived at Fairview the remainder of his life.

The Marquis de La Fayette’s visits to Bristol may also be mentioned in this connection. He was wounded in the battle of Brandywine, and after leaving the field hospital was brought to Bristol, where he remained until strong enough to be taken to Bethlehem. He again arrived in the town on the 27th day of September, 1824. The citizens had previously appointed Dr. John Phillips, David Dorrance, and William F. Swift a committee to make arrangements suitable for the reception of their distinguished guest. A triumphal arch, with the inscription, "Welcome, Friend," was erected at the Hollow bridge. Stores and residences were decorated with flags. A large concourse of people assembled from all parts of the surrounding country. The general and his suite were escorted to the residence of Mr. Bessonett, the house now occupied by Nathan Tyler, where refreshments were provided, speeches made, and every assurance of appreciation bestowed upon the distinguished visitor. hundreds of people pressed into the house to shake his hand. Mrs. Bessonett was introduced and related the circumstances under which she had nursed him on the occasion of his former visit. He recognized her, and recollected distinctly his short stay in the place on his way to Bethlehem. After a rest of several hours, the march of the procession was resumed towards Philadelphia.

Until within recent years, notwithstanding its advantages for business, the distinguishing character of the place has been its quiet rural beauty. The ratio of growth and improvement in the last century may be inferred from what people have said at various times in that period. Oldmixon, writing in 1708, places the number of houses at fifty, and mentions the mills of Samuel Carpenter, "an eminent planter." Alexander Graydon, writing in 1757, says:
     "There are few towns, perhaps, in Pennsylvania, which in the same space of time have been so little improved or undergone less alteration. Then (1715) as now the great road leading from Philadelphia to New York, first skirting the inlet at the head of which stand the mills, and then turning short to the left along the banks of the Delaware, formed the principal and indeed only street marked by anything like a continuity of building. A few places for streets were opened from this main one on which, here and there, stood an humble, solitary dwelling. At a corner of two of these lanes was a Quaker meeting-house, and at a still more retired spot stood a small Episcopal church, whose lonely graveyard, with its surrounding woody scenery, might have furnished an appropriate theme for such a muse as Gray’s. These, together with an old brick jail, constituted all the public edifices in this my native town. With the exception of the family of Dr. DeNormandie, our own, and perhaps one or two more, the principal inhabitants of Bristol were Quakers. Among these, the names of Buckley, Williams, Large, Merritt, Hutchinson, and Church are familiar to me." Scott’s Geography states that the houses in 1806 numbered about ninety, an increase of forty in a hundred years. Within the present century, the town as it exists to-day may properly be said to have come into existence. William Bache, writing in 1853, thus summarizes its industrial and business interests at that time:
     . . . The greater amount of business in general store-keeping is carried on in Mill street, which now has twelve retail stores for the sale of groceries, provisions, clothing, dry-goods, and housekeeping articles generally. Besides these, there are now in the same street two fancy dry-goods and trimming stores, two leather and shoe-finding stores, three tin and sheet-iron manufactories, three millinery and two tailoring establishments, three harness manufactories, three boot and shoe makers, a grin and a saw mill, two hat manufacturers, one smith-shop, two drug and medicine stores, two tobacconists, one soap and candle manufactory, one cabinet-ware maker, a printing office, a watchmaker and jeweller, two bakers, and one public house.

On Radcliffe street we have three or four stands for general store-keeping, one millinery and one ladies’ shoe store, a confectionery, two public houses, a few shopkeepers, and a boat-yard.

Bath street is at present chiefly occupied with private residences. The property on the upper side, however, has been rendered very valuable for landings on the canal, and on a small inlet of sufficient capacity to admit canal-boats. Two extensive lumber and coal yards are upon this inlet, which yards open on Bath street.

On Cedar street, one small grocery store, one blacksmith’s shop, one wheelwright’s shop, and a livery-stable.

On Wood street are two small grocery shops, an iron foundry, one ladies’ shoe-shop, and one paint-shop.

On Market street, one blacksmith’s shop, one paint-shop, one cooper-shop, one ladies’ shoe-shop, and two livery-stables.

At Mulberry and Pond streets are erected Hibb’s, Fry & Co.’s machine shops for the manufacture of clover-hullers and cleaners, invented and patented by Jonathan Hibbs, one of the partners. Also on Mulberry street is carried on the business of grain cradle making.

On Walnut street, several boot and shoe manufactories.

On Buckley street have recently been erected Strong & Morgan’s malleable iron and tilt-hammer works, now going into active operation. The business of rope-making is also carried on in this street.

In Otter street have recently been erected one wheelwright’s shop and pump-maker’s shop. Otter street is becoming one of the most favorable localities for the erection of shops for carrying on the mechanic arts, particularly such as are more generally required by our neighbouring farmers. A small grocery store has recently been opened on this street, required by the rapid advancement in building up the lots opened for improvement in that neighbourhood in 1851.

On Linden street (in the plot just noticed) is erected an extensive and complete coach, wheelwright, blacksmith, painting, and coach-trimming establishment.

A large amount of river front, and sites of the canal, are occupied by coal operators, and some portions for boat-building. Along the line of the canal within the limits of the town are several extensive stables, smith shops, a cooper’s shop, and stores adapted to the wants of watermen.

Mill street has continued to be the principal business thoroughfare of the town. The number and variety of the stores have not increased in proportion to the growth of the town in other respects. The nearness of Philadelphia attracts a great deal of business to that city which would otherwise be transacted by local establishments. Every line of business is represented, and many of the store-rooms are commodious. Commercial transactions are greatly facilitated by the operations of "The Farmer’s National Bank of Bucks County." This institution, the oldest in the county, was established in 1814 at Hulmeville, and organized December 12th of that year with John Hulme president, and George Harrison cashier. Joseph Pickering was elected clerk. A portion of the house of George Hulme was occupied as a banking-room, and the president was directed to procure a large chest made of strong plank, covered with sheet-iron, and secured by strong locks and bolts in a secret manner. Joseph Hulme became president in 1818, John Newbold in 1821, Anthony Taylor in 1823, John Paxson, Anthony Burton, and Caleb N. Taylor subsequently. George Harrison was succeeded as cashier by William Newbold in 1823; Robert C. Beatty was elected to this office in 1827, C.T. Iredell in 1867, and Charles E. Scott in 1882. The original capital was sixty thousand dollars. This was increased to ninety thousand in 1836, and to ninety-two thousand two hundred dollars in 1837, at which sum it has since remained. It was reorganized as a national bank January 13, 1865, and has been rechartered. The surplus fund is equal to the capital. The bank was removed from Hulmeville to Bristol in 1824, and has since occupied the present banking house on Radcliffe street.

Postal facilities also date from a comparatively early period. The first post-office in the county was established here in 1790, with Colonel Joseph Clunn as postmaster. He opened the office at his residence on Mill street, and continued it there until his death, in 1816, when his son-in-law, John Priestly, was appointed. The successive incumbents since then have been as follows: John Bessonett, John Bessonett, Jr.; 1841—45, Gilbert Tomlinson; 1845—49, William Kinsey; 1849—53, Samuel Pike; 1853—61, Hugh and Charles Dongan; 1861—65, Nathan Tyler; 1865—69, Israel Tomlinson; 1869—77, Jesse B. Mears; 1877—85, W.B. Baker; 1885----, James Drury. Previous to 1820 the Philadelphia mail arrived at six o’clock p. m., and the New York mail at midnight. This office has always been managed judiciously, and is at present a mail distributing point for several smaller offices in the southern part of the county.

Public improvements and manufactures have made Bristol what it is to-day. The turnpike, the canal, and the railroad have successively assisted the place to a more advanced position in material progress. At the meeting of the council at which the town was authorized to be laid out, measures were also taken to provide it with the advantages of a road to Philadelphia. The only highway of this description previously existing was the "king’s path," opened in 1675 to the falls, but this was literally what the name implied, merely a bridle-path. The council of 1697 directed that a road should be laid out crossing the Neshaminy at Joseph Growdon’s landing, thence to "Buckingham" (Bristol), and thence to the falls by way of Joseph Chorley’s ferry. For many years after this, however, public travel was confined almost exclusively to the river. The first important step in bringing about a different state of things was the construction of the Bristol and Frankfort turnpike. The company was incorporated March 24, 1803, upon petition of Joseph Clunn, John McElroy, Derrick Peterson, Isaac Merrill, Nathan Harper, James Fisher, and Richard Gorman, nearly all of whom were citizens of Bristol. Work was begun in the following year. The road was completed to Bristol in 1810, and to Morrisville in 1812, at an aggregate expenditure of three hundred and nine thousand, three hundred dollars. During the most prosperous period of its history the annual dividends were uniformly ten per cent. The route at first proposed was a straight course from Otter’s bridge to the Bloomsdale ferry-house, thus diverting travel from the principal public houses and stores of the town. Through the intervention of the town council, the directors were induced to divert the course of the road from the line at first intended at the intersection of Otter and Mill streets, and thus, continuing by Mill and Radcliffe streets, pass through the business quarter of the borough. It was stipulated, however, that the turnpike company should receive the sum of five hundred dollars and be relieved from building or repairing the culverts within the limits of the town. The turnpike had scarcely been completed before Bristol became an important intermediate point on the stage route from Trenton to Philadelphia. Thomas Porter ran a two-horse coach from John Hammil’s tavern, Trenton, to the city, three times a week. A rival line was established the following year by Peter Probasco and John Dean. The third local line was started in 1807 by John Mannington, who reduced the fare to one dollar and a half, and made the journey from city to city in four hours. He was well patronized. A Mr. Stevens, of Bristol, started a tri-weekly two-horse coach from that place to Philadelphia in 1824, but it did not pay sufficiently, and was discontinued. And thus, although sustained with changing fortunes for many years, the stagecoaches were a principal source of Bristol’s importance during the period of their existence.

The construction of the Delaware division of the Pennsylvania canal was the next great public improvement after the opening of the turnpike. This enterprise was undertaken under the auspices of the state, and the act for the construction of the Delaware division was passed in 1827. The southern terminus was located at Bristol after prolonged and bitter contention regarding the eligibility of different places. Morrisville and Tullytown were suggested, and the latter was regarded with favor by the engineers, as Scott’s creek, in the immediate vicinity, was well adapted for the purposes of the outlet lock. The board of canal commissioners held several meetings to consider the question. A decision in favor of Tullytown was about to be made, when the citizens of Bristol requested one more hearing, alleging that they wished to present certain facts which had not yet been obtained. This induced the board to adjourn, leaving the matter unsettled. The next meeting was held at the Delaware house, Bristol. Counsellor Swift presented the claims in favor of that place, and stated that there was not sufficient water at Tullytown at any time to float a vessel of two hundred tons, while at Bristol a craft of five hundred tons’ burthen could readily be sustained. These statements were based upon soundings secretly made by two men employed by Swift. It was urged in behalf of Tullytown that the measurements should have been made publicly; but the commissioners were satisfied with Swift’s representations, and Bristol was decided upon as the terminal point. The excavations were begun on a beautiful October day in the year 1827, with imposing civic and military demonstrations. At eleven o’clock in the morning a procession numbering several hundred men marched from the town to the present location of lock number three, under the direction of chief-marshal William F. Swift. The exercises began at high noon with prayer by the Episcopal rector, after which an address was made by Peter A. Browne, of the Philadelphia bar. Then followed the nominal object of the occasion. George Harrison, of Hulmeville, and Peter Shin, of Easton, appeared, the former with a wheelbarrow, the latter with a pick and shovel, with which he dug a wheelbarrow load of earth, which Harrison wheeled a short distance and dumped. Marshal Swift delivered an oration replete with congratulations to the people of the county upon the beginning of what was described as one of the grandest enterprises of the age. The band played "Hail Columbia," the people gave three cheers, and then adjourned to the Delaware house, kept by Mr. Bessonett, where several hundred persons "dined and wined, made speeches, and got happy under the music of the popping corks." There was a second gala occasion three years later, when the first boat was launched. David Dorrance and Richard Morris, citizens of Bristol, contracted for the excavations from that place to Yardley, and having executed their contract in 1831 the canal was declared open for navigation from Bristol to New Hope. A number of prominent citizens made the journey thither in a boat drawn by four horses. A public dinner was given by the borough, bells were rung, speeches made, and bonfires kindled in honor of the occasion. Results for the first few years justified the expectations of the most sanguine. Thousands of tons of coal from the Lehigh and Hazel regions, en route for the New England states, were annually consigned to Bristol for re-shipment in sailing vessels. There was a great demand for property having a river front, and wharves were built eastward from the basin a distance of several streets. Labor for two or three hundred men in transferring cargoes was thus provided; vessels bound for eastern ports were usually provisioned here; horses and draymen were also employed, and thus every branch of business was liberally patronized. The cessation of this era of prosperity is directly traceable to two causes, viz., the establishment of the shipping depot of the Philadelphia & Reading railroad at Port Richmond, and the construction of the outlet lock at New Hope. Philadelphia is twenty miles nearer the capes than Bristol, and this advantage in time and distance is sufficient to divert from the latter place a large proportion of the traffic it might otherwise enjoy. The lock at New Hope enables the transfer of boats to the Delaware & Raritan canal, a much more expeditious route to the seaboard than by way of Bristol, as formerly. The loss of the coal trade seriously injured the prospects of the town, and no compensating advantages were acquired until the introduction of factories. But before considering this topic it may be well to acquaint the reader with the development of an enterprise which has rendered profitable manufacturing possible.

The Philadelphia & Trenton railroad was constructed under a charter granted by the legislature in 1832. It was completed in 1833, and horse-cars were run from Morrisville to Bristol in that year. A depot was built at the foot of Market street at the latter place, where passengers and freight were transferred to boats, and thus taken to Philadelphia. Market street was rented to the railroad company at the rate of three hundred dollars a year. Considerable difficulty was experienced in winter on account of the ice, and the depot was thereupon removed to Tacony, and finally to Kensington. The first locomotive, the "Trenton," was placed on the road in 1834. Subsequent changes in the management of the road belong to the history of the county in general, and will not therefore be given here. It need only be stated that without the advantage for traffic and travel thus conferred, it is not probable that Bristol would have improved to any extent after losing the coal trade.

Although Bristol was among the earliest settlements in the state, but little attention was given to manufactures until a comparatively recent period, and, as is usual in all new departures, the early ventures were unfortunate. The Bristol mills were among the first erected in this county. An old record states that they were built by Samuel Carpenter in 1701 upon Mill creek, about a quarter of a mile from the river. Vessels sailed up to the door to load and unload their cargoes. The saw-mill was seventy-five feet long and thirty-two feet wide, with a daily capacity of three thousand feet. An undershot waterwheel supplied the power for the flouring mill, which was fitted up with four runs of stones. The mill-pond covered two hundred and fifty acres, with fifteen feet of fall at the mills, and yet there was an adequate supply of water only eight months of the year. There was also, prior to the revolution, a ship-yard, and although at one time the construction of sea-going vessels was a business of considerable importance, it has for many years been entirely abandoned.

A woolen mill was erected in 1815 by Joseph and Abraham Warner, at that point on the south side of Mill street now occupied by the canal and railroad. It was a three-story frame building, forty by eighty feet, and comprised seven hundred and eighty spindles, with the requisite carding and other machinery, two hand-looms for weaving satinets, and six looms for plaids and checks, employing twenty-four hands. The mill was leased to Isaac Pitcher. A dispute arose between him and the owners, involving his right to use the water-power when there was not sufficient to run both mills. Pitcher was defeated in the courts. He removed the machinery to Groveville, N.J., and the abandoned building was afterward destroyed by fire.

In 1852 a stock company, with a capital of twelve thousand dollars, built the Bristol forge for the manufacture of heavy shafting and other large pieces of wrought iron. This business was fairly successful. When the demand for armor plates for government war-ships created a market for their products both active and profitable, the capital stock was increased to one hundred and twenty-five thousand dollars, and the capacity of the works greatly enlarged but, unfortunately, too late to reap the anticipated advantage therefrom. The large amount of iron-working machinery put into operation all over the country during the war, and the sudden withdrawal of demand for the products consequent upon its termination, created a depression in the business from which this company never recovered. The plant has since been entirely removed.

Stimulated by the large profits of the Bristol Forge & Iron Company during the brief period of its prosperity, a second organization was formed under the name and title of the Keystone Forge Company, with a capital of eighty-seven thousand dollars. An extensive plant was erected, but too late to receive any profitable business. Losses thus incurred absorbed nearly the whole capital.

The Bristol Woolen Mill Company was organized in 1864 with a capital of sixty thousand dollars, which was afterward increased to seventy-five thousand, and a large two-story building was erected for the manufacture of fancy knit goods of wool, at that time very popular for ladies’ wear. This enterprise enjoyed a brief period of fair success, but fashions changed and after a season of unprofitable business, it shared the fate of its unfortunate predecessors and was closed with considerable loss. The property passed into other hands and was converted into a hosiery mill, in which capacity it is at present employed by Lewis Jones, of Germantown, under the management of Thomas Hughes, of this place. It has an aggregate of about twenty-five thousand square feet of floor surface, and is fully equipped with cards, spindles, and knitting machines, adapted to the manufacture of plain and fancy cotton and merino hosiery. The Providence Knitting Mill, owned and operated by Mrs. Clara Appleton, is engaged in the same branch of industry.

The Livingston mills were built in 1868 by Messrs. Charles W. and Joshua Pierce for the manufacture of printed felt druggets and floor cloths; but the character of the product has changed from year to year to meet the demands of a changing market. A large part of the product during the first few years of its existence consisted of ladies’ felt skirts, of which two thousand per day were regularly produced. The exhibit of this firm at the Centennial Exposition was attractive and varied in character. At that time the establishment in all its departments comprised seventy-five thousand feet of floor surface, boilers and engines of three hundred and two hundred and twenty-five horse-power respectively, the equivalent of eight sets of cards in the manufacture of felt cloths for decorative purposes, four sets of cards, one thousand six hundred spindles, and eighteen broad looms in the production of cassimeres and suitings. The manufacture of felt cloths ceased in 1882 in favor of medium and fine woollen cassimeres. The number of operatives employed at present is about two hundred and fifty. The plant consists of boilers of four hundred and fifty horse-power and engines of three hundred horse-power, twelve sets of cards, three thousand five hundred spindles, and fifty broad looms. The finer grades of cassimeres manufactured at these mills are unsurpassed in quality, color, and durability. The value of the annual product is estimated at five hundred thousand dollars. Charles W. Pierce withdrew from the management in January, 1883, and the business has since been conducted under the firm name of Joshua Pierce & Co.

The Bristol foundry, operated by the T.B. Harkins Foundry Company, was established in 1871 for the manufacture of stove-plate and fine castings. Though limited in extent, this enterprise has been successful and prosperous, and has acquired an extended reputation for superiority of workmanship. About forty men are employed.

The sash and planing-mill of Joseph Sherman was built in 1873, and continues in prosperous activity. A noticeable feature of this business is the manufacture of strawberry-boxes, of which several thousand per day are produced in the summer months.

The Bristol Rolling-mill was built in 1875 by Messrs. Nevegold, Scheide & Co. for the manufacture of hoop, scale, and band-iron from scrap and muck bar. Since the withdrawal of Frederick Nevegold in September, 1886, the proprietorship has been vested in the Bristol Rolling-Mill Company, which was incorporated December 1, 1881, with Charles E. Scheide president, and Grifford V. Lewis secretary and treasurer. A blast-furnace and rolling-mill at Hamburg, Berks county, were leased from the Philadelphia & Reading Coal and Iron Company in 1881 for a term of five years. The annual product amounts to about seven thousand five hundred tons of finished iron, in making which an equal quantity of raw material and five thousand tons of coal are required. The employees number about one hundred and forty. The works are supplied with boilers of four hundred and eighty horse-power, engines of four hundred and twenty horse-power, four heating furnaces, three train rolls, and one continuous hoop-train.

The Bristol Worsted mill was established in 1876 by Messrs. Grundy Bros. & Campion, and at once became a marked feature of the industrial interests of the town. The senior partner, Mr. Edmund H. Grundy, died in 1884, but the firm-name has remained unchanged. Mr. George A. Shoemaker is superintendent of the works. The buildings comprise sixty thousand square feet of floor surface. They are fitted up with intricate and valuable machinery, representing the equivalent of fourteen sets of cards, three thousand seven hundred spindles, seven combing-machines, and boilers and engines of more than three hundred horse-power. About two million pounds of long staple wools are annually consumed, producing finished worsted yarns about half as great in weight and quantity. These yarns are used in the manufacture of high-grade cassimeres and jerseys, for upholstery purposes and for ornamental knitting. About three hundred and fifty operatives are employed.

Messrs. Wilson & Fenimore are manufacturers of wall paper on an extensive scale. This industry involves the exercise of high artistic and mechanical talent. The process of printing is effected by complicated machinery, the goods being finished in one transmission of the paper, which receives the colors from a series of rollers corresponding in number to the shades desired. A separate apartment is set apart for the preparation of designs, and another for the preparation of the rollers. White clay from South Carolina is used as the basis of all colors. This firm has always been among the most enterprising in producing original and striking designs. Their product is known to the trade as brown blanks, white blanks, plain and embossed gilts, plain tints, color borders, gilt borders, and ceiling decorations.

The Bristol Improvement Company was incorporated December 18, 1876, with a capital of sixty thousand dollars, mainly through the efforts of Joshua Pierce, to whom much credit is due both for the establishment and successful operation of the enterprise. The original organization was constituted as follows: president, Joshua Pierce; secretary, Charles E. Scheide; treasurer, C.W. Pierce; directors, Joshua Pierce, Charles W. Pierce, Robert W. Rogers, Charles E. Scheide, William H. Grundy. It is the purpose of the corporation to offer facilities to manufacturers desiring to locate here by erecting buildings for their accommodation, thus encouraging the growth of manufacturing industries in the borough. The operations of the company have been aggressive and uniformly successful. The real estate in its possession consists of the following factory properties, all of which are unincumbered: the Bristol worsted mill, leased by Grundy Brothers & Campion; the Keystone mill, leased by John Mundell & Co.; the Star mill, leased by Grundy Brothers & Campion for storage purposes; the Bristol foundry, leased by the T.B. Harkins Foundry Company; the wall paper factory, leased by Wilson & Fenimore; and the Bristol carpet mill, leased by Thomas L. Leedom & Co. The last named has but recently been erected, and is the largest building owned by the corporation. It is a fine three-story structure, five hundred feet in length, with a wing one hundred feet long. The present capital stock is two hundred and nineteen thousand dollars. It is intended that this shall be increased from time to time as demands are made for additional buildings. The Improvement Company has proven to be a valuable agency in promoting the growth of manufacturing interests, and thus insuring the general prosperity of the town.

Several years since the old and well-known flour and lumber mill of Mr. John Dorrance passed into the hands of Rogers Brothers, who have introduced steam, thus rendering it independent of the uncertainties incident to a fluctuating water supply. The facilities of the old mill have otherwise been enlarged, with the purpose of producing a high grade of flour for the wholesale market. There are other smaller industries of a varied character, which may appear comparatively unimportant as compared with some of those mentioned, but perceptibly swell the aggregate of production.

In the early days of domestic manufactures, the only practical motor-power was derived from the streams, and hence the employment of every available stream, however remote and secluded. But with the disappearance of the forests, the streams have ceased to be trustworthy, and with the constantly increasing demand for fabrics the use of steam has become indispensable. Ease of access and rapidity of transportation have thus become the paramount considerations in influencing the selection of factory sites. Bristol is exceptionally fortunate with regard to railroad facilities. The class of labor is also above the average, and much superior to that of large cities. This is the natural result of more comfortable homes, purer atmosphere, and the larger individuality incident to semi-country life. The increased self-respect and intelligence of the laboring man in turn secure to the employer more and better work than is obtainable under less favorable conditions. Manufacturers are becoming cognizant of this fact. Capitalists are looking to the country for locations more each year; and Bristol, already recognized among the points around Philadelphia that present more than ordinary advantages, is destined to become, at a not distant period, a centre of industrial activity.

While concentrated capital has thus revolutionized the industrial condition of Bristol, the efforts of that large proportion of the population known as the laboring classes have also been productive of much improvement to the town. It is not often in a manufacturing town that so many of the operatives own the houses they occupy as is the case in Bristol. This condition of things, so desirable and necessary in every well-ordered community, has been brought about mainly through the agency of building and loan associations. The second organization of this character in the state, the Bristol Building Association, came into existence February 22, 1847, when Joshua V. Buckman was elected president, Anthony Swain secretary, Robert C. Beatty treasurer, and Lewis P. Kinsey, Charles W. Pierce, Charles T. Iredell, Walter Laing, Joshua Fell, Jonathan Milnor, John Dorrance, L.A. Hoguet, and William Hauk directors. The plan was simple; the funds first realized amounted to four hundred dollars, which was loaned in sums of half that much to the person offering the highest premium. Mortgages on real estate and the shares of the borrower were held as collateral security. The principal and interest on the debt were paid in monthly instalments of one dollar a share and one dollar for every two hundred borrowed. This association was closed in 1859. Two others had meanwhile come into existence, the "Franklin" and the "Union." The former was organized November 7, 1853, with Anthony Swain secretary, and Robert C. Beatty treasurer. The "Union" was established about the same time with Andrew Gilkeson secretary. The "Home" and "Cottage" Building Associations were started in 1867 and 1870 respectively, the principal promoters being William Hauk, L.A. Hoguet, and Samuel Swain. The Bristol Building Association was incorporated in December, 1866, having organized August 6th the previous year with William Hauk, president, J.V. Buckman, secretary, and L.A. Hoguet, treasurer. It has issued eight series, three of which have matured and been paid. The aggregate of loans in the twenty years of its existence has been two hundred thousand dollars. Available assets, as shown by last annual report, about fifty-six thousand dollars; rate of interest, seven and eighty-five hundredths per cent. The Union Building and Loan Association was organized June 8, 1874, and incorporated for a period of thirty years. Original officers: president, Jonathan Milnor; secretary, Samuel Swain; treasurer, Charles T. Iredell. Four series have been issued, one of which has matured. About one hundred thousand dollars have been loaned by this organization. Fidelity Building Association was organized February 18, 1885, and incorporated March 26, 1885. Original officers: president, James Wright; secretary, A. Weir Gilkeson; treasurer, Robert W. Rogers. This was the first association at Bristol to adopt the instalment plan of paying premiums. The Merchants and Mechanics’ Building Association was organized October 21, 1885, with Charles W. Peirce president, John C. Stuckert secretary, and Dr. Howard Pursell treasurer. One thousand three hundred and seventeen shares were issued the first year. It has been incorporated for a period of twenty years. The distinctive feature of this association is the payment of premiums in advance. The "Bristol," "Union," "Fidelity," and "Merchants and Mechanics’" are in active and prosperous operation at the present time.

The borough limits have been extended from time to time, as the increase of population required. The original boundaries as described in the charter of 1720 were as follows: "Beginning at the mouth of Mill creek where it empties into the river Delaware; from thence extending by the channel of the same creek upwards by the several courses thereof to a bridge called Otter’s bridge; thence by Joseph Bond’s land, north fifty-two degrees, east ninety-six perches to a post; then north thirty-nine degrees, east fifty-five perches to a post; then by the waste and the mill dam southeast fifty-eight perches; then from the end of the said dam east eight degrees, south one hundred and forty perches to a post; then southeast one hundred and five perches to a post by the said river Delaware; thence down the same river west twenty-seven degrees, south one hundred and ninety-two perches to the place of beginning, including Phineas Pemberton’s survey of the said town, with additions according to the agreement of the said inhabitants." Pemberton’s draft has unfortunately been lost; and Cutler’s, made in 1715, has become exceedingly rare. Old Bristol (or properly speaking, New Bristol, as it was called at that time), as comprehended in the boundaries above given, comprised the following streets, viz., Mill street, beginning "at an ash tree . . . . at the northeast side of the sd Mill street and northwest side of Radcliffe street," and extending to the mill-race; Radcliffe street, sixty-six feet in breadth, beginning at the ash tree and extending to the limits of the town; Market, Mulberry, and Walnut, parallel with Mill street; Cedar, Wood, and Pond, extending in the same general direction as Radcliffe street; the continuation of Pond, Wood, and Cedar from Mill street to the creek, and of Market, Mulberry, and Walnut, from Radcliffe to the river, and Water street, subsequently vacated, sixty feet below Radcliffe and parallel with it. Otter street (the turnpike road) was also an original highway, but was not regarded as a street. Bath street, otherwise known as the terminus of the old Newtown road and as part of the turnpike in its intersection with Otter, was opened and widened in 1809 by private individuals, but without the co-operation of the proper borough authorities, who finally accepted it in 1821. The Beaver Dam road, otherwise known as Beaver street, was surveyed in 1821. The borough limits had meanwhile been extended eastward to Adam’s hollow and westward to the millpond in 1801. A further addition was made in 1852, and the boundaries then established are those of the present, and are thus described: "Beginning at a point in the river Delaware near the mouth of Mill creek, at a distance of ---- chains from the centre point of Mill and Water streets; from thence extending by the channel of the said creek upwards, by the several courses thereof to a bridge called Otter’s bridge; thence by lands formerly Joseph Bond’s, north fifty-two degrees east ninety-six perches to a post; thence north thirty-nine degrees east fifty-five perches to a post; thence by the waste and mill-dam southeast fifty-eight perches; thence up the several courses of the mill-pond on lands formerly of Phineas Buckley to a stream of water running from the said mill-pond to the river Delaware, commonly called Adam’s hollow creek; thence down the several courses of said creek to the river Delaware; thence down the several courses of the river Delaware to the place of beginning," embracing an area of about four hundred and fifty acres. It is worthy of notice that the built-up portion of the town was first extended west of the mill-race, about the years 1811—25, as shown by the improvement of Bath street in 1809, and of Otter a few years later. The construction of the turnpike probably influenced this. There was considerable building activity from 1833 to 1855, the period of prosperity incident to the canal trade. Property having a river front was in demand at this time; and hence the opening of Franklin and Penn streets from Radcliffe to low-water mark in 1336. Wilson street was opened in 1849. Pond street was extended from Walnut to Lafayette in 1855. Wood street, which was continued easterly from Walnut in 1766, upon land vacated by John Hutchinson, was further opened to Washington in 1851. Cedar street was extended from Walnut to Franklin in 1849, and thence to Lafayette in 1851. Wood and Pond were further laid out in 1874. Franklin and Penn streets were opened from Radcliffe to Pond in 1855. Dorrance street was opened from low-water mark to Pond in 1855, and thence to Canal street in 1881. Washington and Lafayette streets were laid out from the river to Pond street in 1855, and continued in 1874. Jefferson avenue was opened in 1873. Lincoln street has been projected between Radcliffe and Pond. Similar changes have been in progress in the vicinity of Bath and Otter streets. Buckley street was laid out in 1847, Mifflin in 1853; Spruce, Race, Swain, and Locust in 1874, Linden, Maple, Green, and. Pearl in 1880, by the borough authorities, although opened by private individuals in 1851. A considerable area adjoining Beaver street above the canal has recently been surveyed in streets, of which the most important are Garden, Mansion, Spring, Summer, Corson, and Jefferson avenue.

Mention of repairing the streets occurs in the records at an early period, and it appears that as early as 1769 half the money realized from fines was applied to this purpose. In March, 1798, Mill street was declared to be impassable, and a number of the inhabitants subscribed a sum of money for its repair. No systematic efforts in the direction of permanent improvement were made until recent years, beginning with 1856, when Dorrance street was paved, curbed, and graded by order of council. This treatment has since been extended to every highway in the borough, and few towns in the state are more likely to impress the observer more favorably in this respect. Two enterprises indicative of this spirit of improvement deserve mention in this connection. The Bristol Gas-Light Company was incorporated March 29, 1856, and organized with Lucius H. Scott, president, and Charles W. Pierce, secretary and treasurer. The manufacture of gas was begun July 30, 1857. Four or five miles of pipe have been laid, and the convenience of gas light brought within the reach of all. The Bristol Water Company was incorporated August 31, 1874. The source of water-supply is the Delaware river. The average consumption is about two hundred and fifty thousand gallons per day. The safety and healthfulness of the town are thus provided for. The latest improvement agitated is the construction of an adequate system of sewerage, a project that commends itself to every public-spirited citizen. There are two fire companies, Bristol No. 1, and the America, both of which possess complete apparatus and own halls. Although these organizations are purely voluntary, the town council appropriates money for their support, and usually meets in the building owned by Bristol No. 1, instead of in the town hall as formerly. The latter is situated in Market street on Radcliffe.

Changes in the condition of society incident to the expansion of a feeble frontier settlement into a populous manufacturing town have necessitated corresponding alterations in the machinery of local government. Bristol was incorporated as a borough by virtue of a royal charter granted November 14, 1720. The matter had evidently been agitated some years previously, for in 1718 a petition was presented to the provincial council, and the subject was referred to the chief-justice. The charter provided for the election of two burgesses, a high constable, and such other officers as were necessary to preserve the peace, on the 8th day of September in each year. The chief burgess was to appear before the governor within five days after his election and take the oath of office, after which he qualified his colleague and the other elected officers. They were authorized to be "conservators of the peace and without any "law proceeding, to deal summarily with rioters, law-breakers, and other offenders." The functions of the high constable were of a varied character; he was to be "clerk of the market,. . . . have assize of bread, wine, beer, wood, and other things." A person elected to the office of burgess and declining to serve was liable to a fine of ten pounds, or if high constable, under similar circumstances, five pounds, which is the only provision for a revenue the framers of the charter considered necessary. The legislative powers were vested in the whole body of citizens, who were to assemble in town meeting at the call of the burgess or constable. It is a question, however, whether the town meeting consisted of other than members of the council with the burgess. It is not known how the council came into existence, but in 1732 it numbered six members, and the other officers at that time beside the burgesses were the constable and pound-keeper. As fiscal affairs became more important it became necessary to provide for their regulation, and in 1745 the assembly passed an act providing for the election of assessors, whose duty was simply to compute the tax from returns made by the high constable. The limit of taxation was fixed at three pence per pound. The appointment of a borough treasurer by the council was also authorized. As the corporate existence of Bristol was derived from the crown of Great Britain, it was dissolved by the declaration of independence; whereupon the assembly passed an act September 16, 1785, re-establishing its former powers and privileges. The original charter thus revived continued operative until 1851. Its defects were many; as a writer of 1849 thus forcibly expresses it: "The powers reposed in our borough officers should be amply explicit and determined; those conferred by the present charter are vague, uncertain, and undefined. In some instances their want of authority has been severely felt and universally deprecated. In others it is exceedingly questionable, while oftentimes it is absolute and unbounded." At a general town meeting, held July 26, 1850, Samuel Allen, Dr. Benjamin Malone, Andrew W. Gilkeson, Anthony Swain, William H. Swift, Isaac Van Horn, Pugh Dungan, William M. Downing, Gilbert Tomlinson, and William Bache were constituted a committee to prepare a draft of a new charter, which, with slight amendments, was passed by the legislature and approved February 15, 1851. It increased the number of councilmen to nine, but abolished the office of second burgess. The council was increased to ten members in 1863, and to twelve in 1878, when the borough was divided into three wards for election purposes, and is at present so constituted. The other borough officers are high constable and pound-keeper. Prior to 1863 all officers were elected annually; but since that time the burgess and councilmen are elected for two years, two of the latter being chosen every year from each ward. The borough records now extant begin with the year 1730. The official acts of the town fathers reflect much that is of interest in connection with village politics in the last century. The ferry, encroachments upon the streets, and local nuisances were the most fruitful sources of legislation. Public morals were jealously guarded. In 1769, when it appeared that crowds were accustomed to collect at the Baths on Sunday and become disorderly, an ordinance was passed forbidding any one to loiter in that vicinity; and in the following year the custom of collecting on the street corners was severely censured. It was the disorder incident to the fairs that resulted in their discontinuance. The penalty for Sabbath-breaking was confinement in the workhouse five days at hard labor upon an allowance of bread and water. Election days were sometimes disorderly; and that this might not occur, the council decreed in 1751 that the polls should be opened at one o’clock in the afternoon and close precisely at six in the evening.

But two religious persuasions were represented in Bristol during the first century of its history, the Friends and Episcopalians. The meeting-house of the former, which is still standing, and from all appearances may survive another hundred years, was built in 1710 upon ground deeded for that purpose by Samuel Carpenter to Joseph Kirkbride, Tobias Dimick, Thomas Watson, Edward Mayos, and William Croasdale. This building was repaired in 1738 and enlarged in 1763. The meeting was established in 1704 by Falls meeting, with which many members of the society in this vicinity were then connected. A meeting-house was built for the orthodox Friends in 1828, and a third for those of their number who accepted the Millerite doctrines in 1867. These unfortunate divisions among the members of the society have greatly reduced its numbers and influence.

The St. James’ Protestant Episcopal church originated indirectly in a division among Friends about the year 1696, when the more conservative party took the name of Keithians, from George Keith, their leader, who maintained that the "inner light" was not a sufficient guide, and that the only rule of life was the written word of God, at the same time strenuously advocating the sobriety and plainness of the sect. Keith promulgated these doctrines with such success that fifteen different meetings of the Friends were brought into full agreement with him during a stay of several years in America. Upon his return to England, Keith was again brought into contact with the Anglican church, and the influence thus brought to bear upon his mind completed his separation from the Quakers; he was ordained to the ministry by Compton, bishop of London, and was at once commissioned the first missionary of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts." There was at this time a single Episcopal clergyman in the province, Mr. Evans, of Philadelphia. His arrival preceded that of Keith on his second voyage two or three years, during which period several hundred persons had been baptized. The presence of Keith gave a new impetus to the movement; and during his brief stay, he baptized at least two hundred persons, some of whom were from Bristol. The Reverend John Talbot was chaplain on the man-of-war in which Keith came out on his missionary voyage, and became greatly interested in the plans of the society. When Keith visited this locality, he was accompanied by Talbot, who became the first rector of St. Mary’s parish, Burlington. Subsequent developments with reference to this town are thus explained by Dr. Humphreys: "New Bristol lies opposite Burlington, on the other side of the Delaware. The people there forsook Quakerism much about the same time the inhabitants of Burlington did. A church was soon erected there through the zeal of the people, especially through the means of two worthy gentlemen of the place, Mr. John Rowland and Mr. Anthony Burton, who were chiefly instrumental in this work. They had no missionary sent to reside among them constantly, but used to be visited by the minister of Burlington. Mr. Talbot, who was fixed at Burlington, used frequently to cross the water to them, and preach and perform all the ministerial offices . . . . . The people were sensible that the society was not able to establish missionaries in every place, and were therefore content to be assisted by the minister of Burlington, and the society has always given directions that the minister of that place should take Bristol into his care;" so that the Reverend John Talbot was the first rector in charge of this parish.

The church site and burial-grounds, comprising an acre and a half, were donated by Anthony Burton. It is thought that the donor first gave the lot upon which the church was to be erected, and afterward supplemented this with the wider limits now established. The church edifice was probably commenced in 1711. The founders of the parish had but little or no exterior aid. The title-page of the old record book says of the church that it was "built by subscription of several well-disposed persons, and being finished was dedicated to the honor of St. James the Greater, the festival of that apostle being ye 25th July, 1712." Queen Anne favored this parish in common with many others with the gift of a solid silver communion service, which must have been given soon after the opening of the church, as the queen died in 1714.

Mr. Talbot continued his connection with the parish until 1720, when he returned to England on a mission of great interest to the church in this country. When he came to America again, three years later, it was in the capacity of bishop, the first ecclesiastical dignitary of his church in the British colonies. During the three years of his absence the parish was supplied by Reverend Thoroughgood Moore, and upon his death in 1827 Reverend Robert Weyman took charge. The oldest records of the vestry begin in his incumbency, with Matthew Rue and Francis Gaudorett, church wardens; John Abram DeNormandie, William Hope, John Anthony DeNormandie, John Bessonett, William Gregory, William Silverstone, Evan Harris, John Underwood, Matthias Keene, John Williams, Jonathan Bourne, and Thomas Worrell, vestrymen. It appears that at this time the parish owned a "Church House," bequeathed by John Rowland. Mr. Weyman received ten pounds yearly salary from Bristol. His successor, Reverend William Lindsay, received twenty-four pounds. While he was in charge, an entry was made in the records respecting "ye hours given to ye church by Otter Atherson." This piece of property was sold for thirty. seven pounds ten shillings. Reverend Carlin Campbell, the next rector, was in charge from 1741 to 1766, a period of twenty-five years, during all of which time the local contributions to his support did not exceed ten pounds a year. His successor, Mr. Odell, presided at a vestry meeting in 1768, beyond which fact nothing more is known of him. Reverend Mr. Lewis was the rector in 1776, and, with many other of the clergy throughout the country, continued his attachment to the English government. The odium which this course incurred was transferred in great measure to the church itself. Buildings consecrated to worship were visited with all the displeasure the uniform loyalty of the clergy inspired. Bristol was no exception. The parish church was not only desecrated, but wholly dismantled. Its chancel furniture disappeared. The doors and windows were carried away, and so it remained exposed to sunshine and storm; and when an American cavalry company were stationed here for a time, this venerable house of worship was used as a stable for their horses. After the war, it remained in this half-ruinous condition for a considerable period. It was for a time used as a barn, and the graves in the unfenced burial-ground were trodden under foot of man and beast with impunity. As late as 1806, a former member of the parish gave charge that he should not be buried in that neglected ground, but miles away in Bensalem where his grave would be less open to violation.

Indeed, it seemed more difficult for the church to gain a footing when the country entered upon a period of prosperity and independence than it had been a century previous. In this parish, it seemed as if the work of threescore years and ten had been utterly lost. At the organization of the diocesan convention at Philadelphia in 1785, Christopher Merrick represented St. James’, Bristol, and although an effort was made to secure a rector, no minister is reported as stationed here until 1809. Services had been held for three years previously by Reverend Henry Waddell, D.D., of Trenton, who officiated once in two weeks, the stipulated compensation for which was fifty pounds, or as much as the pew money should amount to. He appears to have dissolved his connection with St. James’ in 1810. Reverend James Andrews, D.D., provost of the University of Pennsylvania, was the next rector. The record book makes no mention of this fact, but journals of the early Pennsylvania conventions make it evident. The ministry of Reverend Richard Drason Hall began in February, 1813. This stipend, including pew-rents, amounted to five hundred dollars, the largest yet paid in the history of the church. The building of a new church was agitated in view of increased attendance under his ministry, but not effected. The bounds of the parish in 1815 are indicated by the appointment in that year of John Harrison collector for Bensalem, Joseph King and James Wright for Bristol, and George Remson for Newport. The property outside of the church and graveyard, vested in the parish, consisted in 1816 of the house bequeathed by John Rowland in 1715, and a lot of half an acre in Attleboro of which the donor is not known. Of the pews in the church as enlarged in that year, one was free and one was set apart for persons of color. The ministry of Mr. hail was one of great zeal and in some respects of remarkable success. The membership was largely increased and the church property greatly improved.

Mr. Jacquette succeeded him in 1822, and Reverend Albert A. Muller in 1823, but neither remained very long. The ministry of the next rector, Reverend J.V.E. Thorn, was eminently evangelical, but too short to have effected much permanent good. He resigned February, 27, 1828. Reverend William H. Rue was elected and appointed rector April 7, 1828; George W. Ridgeley in 1830; W.S. Perkins in June, l833; Henry B. Barton January 1, 1855; Joseph W. Pierson July, 1857; W.W. Spear, D.D., in 1861; John H. Drumm, D.D., February, 1863; John C. Brooks 1876; and Joseph Lee 1878. Mr. Perkins thus speaks of things as they existed when he entered the parish: "The church was discouraging and unbecoming to the character of the place and the people; the yard around was nearly destitute of trees, and even the old-fashioned spire on the roof seemed to sympathize in the general depression, for it had ceased to point directly heavenward." The decaying edifice was at length repaired, but the expense thus incurred absorbed all the property of the parish. The communion plate given by Queen Anne had long since disappeared; it was followed, one by one, as all the other benefactions made to the parish were sold. At length it became apparent that further repairs to the old church building were useless. Mr. Barton began the erection of the present edifice, and it was completed by his successor, Mr. Pierson. The consecration occurred Wednesday, September 8, 1857, Right Reverend Samuel Bowman, D.D, Assistant Bishop of the diocese, presiding. Mr. Barton pronounced the sentence of consecration. The edifice is of the Byzantine order of architecture, built of Trenton brown-stone with bead mouldings and corbels, in dimensions one hundred by forty-five feet, with a chancel sixteen feet deep and seventeen feet wide, and a seating capacity of five hundred. A handsome chapel for Sunday-school purposes has recently been erected under the auspices of the Ladies’ Aid Society.

The Methodist Episcopal church of Bristol is the oldest in the state outside of Philadelphia, with a single exception. As early as the year 1771, Captain Webb, of the British army, stopped here on his way from New York to Philadelphia and preached under a chestnut tree that stood upon the site of the present Methodist church. On a later occasion, while on a visit to Burlington, he crossed the river and preached to a large congregation in his military uniform, causing much criticism on the part of some of his hearers as to the propriety of a man in the habiliments of war preaching a gospel of good-will to men. Webb was licensed to preach by Mr. Wesley before the latter came to America the second time. His military career was not uneventful. He was present at the siege of Louisburg and with Wolfe at the Plains of Abraham. He was wounded and lost an eye. President Adams, who heard him preach in St. George’s Church, Philadelphia, said that he was an eloquent speaker. Although the formation of the society originated in his efforts, the first class was not organized until the close of the revolutionary war, probably fifteen years after Webb preached his first sermon. It numbered eleven members, among whom were Mary Connor, Francis Stackhouse, his wife Priscilla, Richard Gosline, his wife Mary, Job Stackhouse, his wife Rebecca, William Kinsey, his wife Catharine, Joseph Stackhouse, and his wife. It does not appear that a leader was appointed for some years.

Meetings were held in private houses, which occasioned great inconvenience. It was decided to build a place for worship, and Mary Connor was authorized to solicit funds. Her efforts on this occasion justly entitle her to the honor of founding the church. The ground upon which Webb had preached his first sermon was purchased for twenty-five pounds. The work progressed so far that the materials were collected and money placed in the hands of the treasurer sufficient for their payment, when he defaulted and the labor of collecting was repeated. The building was finally completed in 1804. No event of signal importance occurred for some years. There were great revivals in 1825 and 1827, and in the latter year seventy persons united with the church, among whom was William Kinsey, one of the oldest living members of this denomination in the county. Bristol circuit was formed in 1788, and included the whole of Bucks county, with portions of Montgomery, Lehigh, and Northampton. It was divided in 1840, when Bristol, Bustleton, and Holmesburg became a charge. In 1844 Bristol became a separate station. The old church building was enlarged in 1827 by the addition of twenty feet. It was then forty feet long in a direction parallel with the street, and half as wide. The present church edifice was built in 1852, and has been remodelled and enlarged quite frequently. Its estimated value is thirteen thousand dollars; present membership, three hundred.

A list of preachers in charge of Bristol since the circuit was established, compiled from annual conference minutes, is herewith presented: 1788, William Dougherty; 1789, Robert Kane; 1790, Robert Hutchinson; 1791, Gamaliel Bailey, Joseph Lovell; 1792, Simon Miller, Isaac Robinson; 1793, N.B. Mills, E. Pelham, L. Rogers; 1794, William Hunter, John Bateman; 1795, William Hardesty, Joseph Rouen; 1796, William Colbert, Joseph Whitley; 1797, Charles Caverder, Richard Lyon; 1798, James Moore; 1799, Joseph Ebert; 1800, Anning Owen, James Osborn; 1801, W.P. Chandler, John Ledler; 1802, Thomas Everard, R. McCoy, T. Jones; 1803, Henry Clark, John Bethel; 1804, David Bartine, David James; 1805, Asa Smith, Daniel Highbee; 1806, Asa Smith, William Hogen; 1807, John Walker, Richard Lyon; 1808, Thomas Dunn, James Polemus; l809, D. Bartine, J. Akins, J. Stepless; 1810, J. Akins, W.S. Fisher, W. P. Chandler; 1811, Thomas Boring, William S. Fisher; 1812, Richard Smith, John Walker, John Fernon; 1813, P. Dimm, Charles Reed, James Polemus; 1814, Charles Reed, D. Bartine; 1815, William Torbet, William M. Foulke; 1816, Asa Smith, Daniel Ireland, P. Price; 1817, John Fox, Asa Smith; 1818, John Robertson, John Price; 1819, Samuel Budd, John Price; 1820, Manning Force, Phineas Price; 1822—23, Jacob Gruber, Daniel Fiddler; 1824, William Williams, Thomas Davis; 1825, Edward Stout, James Grace; 1826, Edward Stout, Joseph Carey; 1827, Henry G. King, Robert Lutton; 1828, Henry G. King, J.B. Ayres; 1829, Thomas Neal, Nathaniel Chew; 1830, Thomas Neal, Manlove Hazel; 1831, Edward Page, John Finley, James Long; 1832, Edward Page, Asbury Boring; 1833, D. Bartine, J. Nicholson:

1834, D. Bartine, C.S. Wharton: 1835, J. Woolston; 1836, D.W. Bartine, Jr., R. McNamee; 1837, D.W. Bartine, Jr., James Hand; 1838, William Williams; 1839, William Gentner; 1840, John Ludnam, William McMichael; 1841, R. Thomas, G. Allen; 1842, R. Thomas, J. Walsh; 1843, James Asprill; 1844—45, Thomas S. Johnson; 1847, G.D. Carrow; 1848, G.D. Carrow, L.K. Berridge; 1849, R. McNamee, W. McMichael; 185l—52, William McCoombe; 1853—54, M.H. Sisty; 1855—56, J.F. Boone; 1857—58, E.J. Way; 1859—60, G.N. McGrauth; 1861—62, P.J. Coxe; 1863—64, A. Johns; 1865, William Barnes; 1866, I.H. Irwin; 1867, H. Grove; 1868, ----- Griffith; 1869—70, William Riull; 1871—72, William Dabright; 1873—74, F.E. Church; 1875—77, J.S. Cook; 1878—80, I. Cunningham; 1881—83, H.E. Gilroy; 1884—86, -----Ridgway; 1887, S.T. Kimball.

The Presbyterian church, Bristol, Reverend E.P. Shields, pastor, owes its origin to the energy and self-denying efforts of the Reverend James M. Harlow, who came to Bristol and moved in the matter of its organization, and especially in the work of the erection of a house of worship, as early as the spring of the year 1844. He seems to have secured subscriptions in every quarter to which he could make appeal, churches, ministers, and individuals listening favorably to his plans. He also gave diligence to the work of building, not only by planning the only edifice the congregation has ever occupied, but also in material service with manual labor and by securing like help from willing hands in the community. Presbytery received the organization under its care at the session of April 22, 1846. The fourteen original members were John Koons, Sarah P. Harlow, Anna M. Harlow, Anna M. Strigers, Elizabeth M. Wright, Isaac Van Horn, Adaline Van Horn, Anna Van Horn, Mary (Van Uxem) Pierce, John McQuilkin, Mary MeQuilkin, W.W. Wallace, Clara Wallace, and Elizabeth Evans, of whom Mrs. Pierce is the only survivor. It is a remarkable fact that all the pastors are still living and engaged in active work. Their order of succession is as follows: James M. Harlow, 1844—50; Franklin D. Harris, 1851—61; Alfred Taylor, 1862—64; Henry F. Lee, 1865—68; Jacob Weidman, 1868—73; James H. Mason Knox, D.D., 1873—83; Edward P. Shields, 1884. The church building was enlarged and re-furnished in 1872 at considerable expense. There is also a large and commodious parsonage conveniently located near the church. With the growth of the town there are many reasons for the confidence that this church, distinguished for its harmony and energy, will advance to still greater usefulness in the future.

St. Mark’s Roman Catholic parish originated in the efforts of Reverend McGordon more than fifty years ago. He was then pastor at Trenton, but came to Bristol at stated periods and celebrated mass at private houses, among others those of James Ryan, Matthew McAdams, James Johnson, Terence Brady, and William Donald. Funeral services were always held at Trenton, then the only place of interment within the bounds of that extensive parish. Father McGordon was an old man of venerable appearance. Father Gilligan succeeded him, and continued to visit Bristol. Reverend John Mackin was next in order, and through his efforts a church was built. This was a one-story building, with six windows on each side, the vestibule in front, flat roof, surmounted by a cross at the apex above the door. It was dedicated in 1845 by Bishop Neuman, of the diocese of Philadelphia. The following clergymen have successively been pastors since that time: John C. Flanagan, Patrick Nugent, Laurence A. Brennan, Daniel Kelley, Patrick McSwiggen, James Cullen, Henry Riley, Edmund Prendergast, Patrick Lynch, and John Ward, the present incumbent. Father Flanagan was the first resident priest. The church building was destroyed by fire in 1866. It was rebuilt in 1867; the corner-stone was laid on the first Sunday in September of that year by Bishop Shanahan, assisted by the clergy. This edifice was consecrated under the ministry of Father Lynch, but not finally completed until quite recently. Father Ward is at present concentrating the energies of the parish upon the erection and equipment of a parochial school building. An eligible site has been secured on Radcliffe street, between Penn and Dorrance, and active building operations are in progress. The present numerical strength of the parish is about one thousand souls.

The First Baptist church of Bristol was constituted September 29, 1848, with fifteen members, viz., Amos Corson, Peter W. Appleton, Mary A. Pennington, Melissa Kinsey, Mary Earl, Margaret A. Booz, Susan Booz, Mary A. Sneger, Margaret Wesinger, Mary Appleton, Elizetta Corson, Maria A. Corson, Emily Forest, Caroline Murphy, and Sarah Johnson. A council was immediately called to consider the propriety of recognizing this body as a regular Baptist church. This council was composed of delegates from several churches of Philadelphia, and many honored names appear in the records on this occasion, among them Doctors Ide, Kennard, Dodge, Gillette, Allison, and Hansell. The sermon was preached by Reverend J.B. Stetler, in the Methodist church building by the kind permission of that body. Reverend C. Davidson was at that time the acting pastor, and continued in that capacity until February, 1850, when Rev. C.J. Page became pastor, the "Pennsylvania Baptist State Convention" contributing to his support. An act for the incorporation of the church was secured in the following June. The church increased in numbers and influence under Mr. Page’s administration. Measures were taken for the erection of a house of worship, which resulted in the completion of the fine brown-stone edifice at the corner of Walnut and Cedar streets. The list of Mr. Page’s successors is as follows: Reverends William Swinden, John Miller, Malachi Taylor, N.B. Baldwin, Thomas Goodwin, C.E. Hardin, William H. Conard, L.G. Beck, and I.W. King, the present incumbent (1887). Mr. Hyde’s pastorate was marked by many accessions. Mr. Hardin was active in the building of a parsonage; Mr. Conard directed his efforts to the liquidation of the indebtedness, an incumbrance that greatly retarded the growth of the church, and this movement was successfully completed by his successor, Mr. Beck. The usual lights and shadows of church history have been mingled in this instance; but with an unincumbered church property eligibly located, and a harmonious membership, its prospects of future usefulness are encouraging.

The Masonic fraternity has been represented in Bristol more than a century. Bristol Lodge, No. 25, A.Y.M.. was instituted March 29, 1780, with John Clark, W.M., Samuel Benezet, S.W., William McIlvaine, J.W., under a dispensation granted two weeks previously by the Provincial Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. Tyrringham Palmer, Patrick Griffith, Joseph McIlvaine, Samuel Bloomfield, Samuel Priestly, David Kennedy, and John Dowdney were also among its earliest members. Daniel Kennedy was first secretary, and Jacob Shallers first treasurer, and it is supposed that the first meetings were held at the house of Henry Shillingberg on Cedar street near Mill. The first hall owned by the lodge was dedicated to masonry, November 18, 1815; the second and present hall is similarly situated, and was dedicated May 1, 1854. The active existence of the fraternity has been suspended at two periods of its history, 1801—12 and 1825—48. Its present condition is prosperous.

Hopkins Lodge, No. 87, I.O.O.F., was instituted October 16, 1843, with the following officers and members: Pugh Dungan, N.G., Joseph W. Carton, V.G., Charles T. Brudon, S., William Earley, A.S., James Strimbach, T., Andrew W. Gilkeson, Jacob McBrien, Morton Righter, Abraham Kelley, and John McEntee. Present membership, one hundred and forty; available assets, eleven thousand dollars.

Hermione Lodge, No. 109, K. of P., was instituted September 26, 1868.

The original members were: William K. Evans, William T. Ennis, Edward B. Brown, Joseph M. Randall, John K. Bunting, Allen L. Garwood, Charles S. Wollard, Samuel P. Bains, and Robert Hetherington.

Mohican Tribe, No. 127, Imp. O. of R. M., was instituted May 19, 1870, with C.C. Brown, S., William Holt, S.S., C.E. Seibert, J.S., Thomas B. Douglass, C. of R., Henry M. Wright, K. of W., and William F. Bailey, P. Present membership, one hundred and thirty; available assets, eleven thousand dollars.

Captain H. Clay Beatty Post, No. 73, G.A.R., was constituted September 13, 1877, with the following named members: Jacob C. Hamilton, Richard H. Morris, Eli West, John W. Ryan, John Ward, William B. Baker, Burnet Landreth, J. Wesley Wright, J.C. Tabram, W. Taylor Potts, George E. Pettit, William Bache, Charles Appleton, Eugene Highland, A.L. Garwood, Strickland Yardley, John L. Lashell, Hugh Mackie, Thomas B. Harkins, M.R. Doan, Samuel Holt, William H. Girton, James G. Paxson, William Ackers, and Samuel Hoff. Auxiliary to this, a Ladies’ Loyal Circle was organized July 13, 1883, and Col. J.M. Goslin Camp, No. 98, S. of V., July 4, 1886.

Fidelity Council, No. 21, Jr. O.U.A.M., was instituted November 27, 1882, with the following named members: Robert H. Neely, Harry W. Hart, William B. Douglass, F.P. Doble, J.T. Stradling, Robert Fetrow, George Cramer, Samuel Van Horn, George Vanzant, Charles Booz, William H. Hall, William E. Appleton, F.B. Booz, W.H. Holt, Charles McCorkle.

Bristol Castle, No. 103, K. of M.C., organized May 19, 1883, with William F. Bailey, P.C., H.C. Barnes, C., L.A. Roden, V.C., S.W. Minster, Lieut. Present membership, one hundred and forty.

Martha Washington Chamber, No. 2, K. of F., was instituted July 7, 1553, with forty members. Past officers: John J. Wilson, H.C. Vendere, R.F. Buseman, A.F. Irensmeyer, J.B. Farrel, W.P. Wright, J.S. Fine, W.W. Smith, W. Robinson, W. Ackers, John MacCorkle, W.H.P. Hall, James Gentleman, Hugh Mackie, John Carty, and W. Woodington.

Light of Liberty Lodge, No. 135, American Protestant Association, was instituted December 16, 1884, with William Chase, W.M., John Young, W.D.M., Asher Conn, R.S., Peyton Dewitt, F.S., G.W. Fisher, A.S., Thomas Dewitt, T.

Bristol Lodge, No. 16, O. of T., was organized January 12, 1886, with Henry B. Banes, P.P., W.H.H. Hall, Pres., John McLees, V.P., Thomas B. Douglass, Sec., John H. Young, Treas., and W. Taylor Potts, M. Ex.

The Women’s Christian Temperance Union of Bristol was organized in the Methodist church, October 25, 1885, with Mrs. Joshua Pierce, president, Mrs. E.J. Groom, vice-president, Miss L. Swain, secretary, and Miss Ellen Warner, treasurer, all of whom have continued as incumbents of their respective offices to the present time, and, with a vice-president representing each religious denomination, form the executive committee. The union organized with thirty-five members, and now numbers one hundred and forty. It has taken up the following branches of work with a superintendent for each department: Evangelistic, press, temperance literature, petitions, and unfermented wine at communion. Thousands of tracts have been circulated. The union has been aggressive, and, so far as could be expected, quite successful.

Nonpareil Council, R.A., was instituted April 18, 1887, with J. Wesley Wright, R., J.K. Young, V.R., H.G. Peters, P.R., W.E. Doron, S., Byram C. Foster, T., Abram S. Wilson, M. Ex.

The public school system of Bristol was inaugurated in 1837, with Gilbert Tomlinson, David E. Woodington, James Johnson, James Harrison, Jonathan Adams, and William Kinsey, directors. A school building was erected on land given for that purpose by the town council at the corner of Wood and Mulberry streets. It cost when furnished about six thousand dollars. The schools were opened December 15, 1837, the male and female departments being under the supervision of James Anderson and Anna N. Smith respectively. A second school building was erected in 1853 on Otter street; a third in 1877 on Washington street; and a fourth on Bath street in 1880, to take the place of the Otter street building, which hail become inadequate in size and appointments. The office of borough superintendent was created in 1885, of which Miss Matilda Booz is the present incumbent. The subordinate teachers number sixteen. The schools have been maintained ten months in the year for some time, and the efficiency of the system thereby assured.

The Bristol Library is an important auxiliary to the schools in promoting the general intelligence of the town. Its affairs are managed by a sort of joint stock company, which was organized April 2, 1878, with James H. Mason Knox, D.D., president, A. Weir Gilkeson, secretary, and Dr. G.W. Adams, treasurer. The library was opened in Washington hall with three hundred and twenty-seven volumes, which number has since increased to two thousand. Under the present social conditions of the borough there is a wide field of usefulness for an institution of this character; and under the liberal management of its promoters, its possibilities may ultimately be realized.

The public school system, as promulgated in the act of April 1, 1834, was adopted by the people of Bristol township at the following election. The directors chosen, Moses Larue, Henry M. Wright, Lardner Van Uxem, Daniel Bailey, Samuel L. Booz, and Joshua Wright, held their first meeting on Saturday, September 27, 1834, at the house of Willis H. Baldwin, and organized with Moses Larue president. It does not appear that the schools received much attention during the first two years. At the election in March, 1837, the question of "school or no school" was again voted upon and decided in the affirmative, which placed the system on a permanent footing. Five schools, known respectively as Newportville, Centerville, Laurel Bend, Smith’s corner, and Badger’s, were opened November 1, 1837, with Daniel B. Hibbs, James C. King, Andrew J. Gilkeson, William Paxton, and E.Q. Pool teachers. The following entry in the minutes of the board for 1840 may interest the pedagogue of the present day: "Horace Estes agrees to teach the Centerville school ten months; to commence on the first day of June, at the sum of twenty-three dollars per month. He agrees to teach reading, spelling, wrighting, geography, astronomy, arithmetic, English grammar, natural philosophy, intellectual philosophy, rhetoric, book-keeping, algebra, geometry, history, and the French language," from which it would seem that the curriculum has been contracted since 1840, notwithstanding the boasted progress of the school system.

Bristol College, an institution under the auspices of the Protestant Episcopal church, was established at China Retreat, in this township, in 1833, with Reverend Chauncey Coulton, D.D., president. It collapsed within a few years, and was subsequently transformed into a classical school, a military academy, and a school for the children of colored soldiers. A school of experimental agriculture under the Fellenberg system was established near Tullytown in 1830 by Anthony Morris under the principalship of F.A. Ismar, a student in the Hofwyl school in Prussia. This project also collapsed.

There are several agricultural features worthy of notice—among others the Bloomsdale seed farm of D. Landreth & Sons, established in 1784, the most extensive in the world. Plants of every variety have been propagated here. A number of garden implements have been originated in the course of the experiments constantly in progress. No establishment of a similar character is so widely and favorably known.

The Belle Meade farm was once owned by Bela Badger, one of the most widely known men of his day. Born at Windham, Connecticut, in 1768, he engaged in business in Baltimore, and removed to this county in 1807. Here he owned the Belle Meade, Island, and Fairview farms, comprising about eight hundred acres of the best land in the county, about half of which he reclaimed from a marsh by a system of embankments and drainage. He became interested in the turf during his residence in Baltimore, where he purchased "Hickory," and with him won a race on the Germantown course with "Postboy," owned by Ethan Allen, at two thousand dollars a side. He was subsequently associated with William R. Johnson, of Virginia, in the ownership of some of the best racing stock of that day; it was by their efforts that the superiority of southern horses was first demonstrated.

The villages of the township are Pine Grove, a suburb of Bristol, Newportville, and Emilie. The former was laid out in 1800, and was known as Newport until 1836, when it became necessary to add the third syllable in locating the post-office. It comprises extensive mills, carriage works, several stores, with other necessary features of a country village. Emilie was formerly known as Centerville, and is situated partly in Middletown. The Episcopal church in Newportville is connected with that in Hulmeville. The Methodist church building at Emilie was built by the Presbyterians, subsequently sold to the Baptists, and finally disposed of to the denomination by which it is now owned, in 1858, principally through the efforts of the trustees of Bristol M.E. church. Reverend William P. Howell was the first pastor. By far the earliest denominational organization was the Cold Spring Baptist church, established by the Reverend Thomas Dungan in 1684. It was disbanded in 1702. Among others who were buried in the graveyard were Reverends Samuel Jones, Joseph Wood, and Thomas Dungan, all of whom were identified with the early history of the Baptist church in this state.



1720. Burgesses, Joseph Bond, John hail; high Constable, Thomas Clifford.

1730. Burgesses, John Hall, Nathan Watson; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Thomas Marriott, James Higgs, John Elfreth, William Hope.

1731. Burgesses, John Abram DeNormandie, Nathan Watson; high Constable, John Priestly; Council, Thomas Marriott, James Higgs, Ennion Williams, Benjamin Wright, John Elfreth, William Hope.

1732. Burgesses, John Hall, Ennion Williams; Council, John Abraham DeNormandie, Thomas Marriott, Benjamin Wright, James Higgs, William Hope, John Elfreth.

1742. Burgesses, John Abram DeNormandie, John Frohoe; high Constable, John Hutchinson; Council, Joseph Jackson, William Buckley, Thomas Marriott, Ennion Williams, Nicholas Allen, Matthew Keen.

1743—44. Burgesses, John Abraham DeNormandie, John Frohoe; High Constable, John Hutchinson; Council, Ennion Williams, Thomas Marriott, Joseph Jackson, John Anthony DeNormandie, William Buckley.

1745. Burgesses, John Hall, William Buckley; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Thomas Marriott, Joseph Jackson, William Atkinson, John Frohoe.

1746. Burgesses, John Hall, William Buckley; high Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, John Frohoe, William Atkinson, John Anthony DeNormandie, William DeNormandie.

1747. Burgesses, William Buckley, Matthias Keen; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, John Hall, Alexander Graydon, Ennion Williams, Thomas Marriott, Joseph Jackson (John Anthony DeNormandie, John Frohoe, Samuel Harker, elected February 29, 1745, to fill vacancies).

1748. Burgesses, William Buckley, John DeNormandie; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, John Hall, John Frohoe, Samuel Harker, Nicholas Allen, John Hutchinson, Joseph Church.

1749. Burgesses, William Buckley, John DeNormandie; Council, Joseph Atkinson, William Large, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, Samuel Harker, Nicholas Allen, John Hutchinson, Joseph Church.

1750. Burgesses, William Buckley, William Large; Council, Ennion Williams, John Abram DeNormandie, Alexander Graydon, Joseph Atkinson, Joseph Church, Thomas Marriott.

1751. Burgesses, William Buckley, Joseph Church; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Alexander Graydon, Joseph Atkinson, William Large, Ennion Williams, John Allen, Barnard Duffield, Thomas Marriott, Anthony Murphy.

1752—53. Burgesses, William Buckley, Thomas Marriott; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, John A. DeNormandie, Joseph Church, William Large, John Allen, Joseph Atkinson, Thomas Stapler, Ebenezer Robinson.

1754. Burgesses, William Buckley, Thomas Marriott; high Constable, John Priestly; Council, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, John A. DeNormandie, Joseph Church, William Large, John Allen, Joseph Atkinson, Thomas Stapler, Matthew Keen.

1755. Burgesses, John DeNormandie, Joseph Atkinson; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, William Buckley, Joseph Church, William Large, John Allen, Thomas Marriott, Matthias Keen.

1756. Burgesses, John DeNormandie, Joseph Atkinson; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, John Abram DeNormandie, Ennion Williams, Thomas Stapler, William Buckley, John Hutchinson, William Large, John Allen, Thomas Marriott, Matthias Keen.

1757. Burgesses, William Buckley, Joseph Atkinson; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, Ennion Williams, John Abram DeNormandie, Alexander Graydon, William Large, John Allen, Thomas Marriott, Samuel Woolston, John Hutchinson, Daniel DeNormandie.

1758. Burgesses, John DeNormandie, William Large; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, William Buckley, John Hutchinson, John Allen, Daniel DeNormandie, Thomas Marriott, Joseph Atkinson, Burnet Richards.

1759. Burgesses, Ennion Williams, William Large; high Constable, Abraham Bulsford; Council, Alexander Graydon, Thomas Marriott, John Hutchinson, Joseph Atkinson, Burnet Richards, John Priestly, John Allen, John DeNormandie, David Pinkerton.

1760. Burgesses, Hugh Hartshorne, Burnet Richards; High Constable, John Priestly; Council, Ennion Williams, Alexander Graydon, Thomas Marriott, John Hutchinson, Joseph Church, Joseph Atkinson, John Allen, John Green, J. DeNormandie.

1761. Burgesses, John Hall, John Green; High Constable, Samuel Woolson; Council, Ennion Williams, Hugh Hartshorne, John DeNormandie, John Allen, William Large, Joseph Atkinson, Joseph Church.

1762. Burgesses, Hugh Hartshorne, John Priestly; high Constable, Joseph Brown; Council, Ennion Williams, John DeNormandie, John Hall, William McIlvaine, Joseph Atkinson, William Large, Joseph Church.

1763. Burgesses, Hugh Hartahorne, David Pinkerton; High Constable, Joseph Brown; Council, Ennion Williams, John DeNormandie, Joseph Atkinson, Joseph Church, William Large, John Allen, John Priestly.

1764. Burgesses, John Priestly, Joseph Hall; High Constable, Joseph Brown; Council, Ennion Williams, Hugh Hartshorne, Joseph Church, Joseph Atkinson, Jonathan Haight, William McIlvain, John Green.

1765. Burgesses, Phineas Buckley, John Hutchinson; Council, Ennion Williams, Hugh Hartshorne, Joseph Church, Joseph Atkinson, Jonathan Haight, Joseph Hall, John Green.

1766. Burgesses, Phineas Buckley, John Bessonett; Council, Ennion Williams, Hugh Hartshorne, John DeNormandie, Joseph Atkinson, Jonathan Haight, John Green, John Priestly.

1768—74. Burgesses, Phineas Buckley, John Bessonett; High Constable, Joseph Brown; Council, Ennion Williams, John DeNormandie, Hugh Hartshorne, John Priestly, Joseph Atkinson, John Green, Charles Bessonett. (Green was succeeded by Patterson Hartshorne in 1772, and Priestly by John Hutchinson in 1773.)

1774—75. Burgesses, Phineas Buckley, John Bessonett; Council, Ennion Williams, John Abram DeNormandie, Hugh Hartshorne, Joseph Atkinson, Charles Bessonett, John Hutchinson, William McIlvaine. (Joseph Church succeeded Charles Bessonett in 1775, and John Gosline became High Constable in that year.)

1784-5. Burgesses, Daniel Kennedy, Joseph Clunn; High Constable, Richard Gosline; Council, William McIlvaine, Joseph McIlvaine, Charles Bessonett, Archibald McElroy, John Gosline, John Dowdney, John Priestly. (William Rodman succeeded Priestly in 1785.)

1786. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Thomas Pearson; high Constable, Richard Gosline; Council, Joseph McIlvaine, Archibald McElroy, John Hutchinson, Timothy Merrick, Job Stackhouse, Joseph Vanschiver, Jonathan Pursell.

1787. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Thomas Pearson; High Constable, Richard Gosline; Council, John Hutchinson, Charles Bessonett, Robert Merrick, Job Stackhouse, Timothy Merrick, Jonathan Pursell, William Allen.

1788—89. Burgesses, John Hutchinson, Thomas Pearson; High Constable, Timothy Merrick; Council, Samuel Kinsey, Amos Gregg, William McIlvaine, Pearson Mitchell, Job Stackhouse, Jonathan Pursell. (Archibald McElroy succeeded Gregg in 1789.)

1790. Burgesses, John Hutchinson, Joseph Clunn; High Constable, John Murray; Council, William McIlvaine, Archibald McElroy, Pearson Mitchell, Thomas Pearson, Samuel Kinsey, Timothy Merrick, Jonathan Pursell.

1791. Burgesses, John Hutchinson, Jonathan Pursell; High Constable, John Murray; Council, Archibald McElroy, Joseph Clunn, Thomas Pearson, Pearson Mitchell, Samuel Kinsey, Timothy Merrick, Joseph Minnick.

1792—93. Burgesses, Joseph Minnick, John Gosline; high Constable, John Murray; Council, Archibald McElroy, Charles Bessonett, Thomas Pearson, Timothy Merrick, Samuel Kinsey, Jonathan Pursell, James Harrison. (Joseph Clunn and William Crawford succeeded McElroy and Bessonett in 1793.)

1794. Burgesses, Joseph Minnick, Robert Merrick; Council, Archibald McElroy, Charles Bessonett, George Merrick, Timothy Merrick, Samuel Kinsey, Jonathan Pursell, Job Stackhouse.

1795. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Richard Trimble; high Constable, Richard Merrick, Jr. ; Council, Samuel Kinsey, John Gosline, John Hutchinson, Joseph Clunn, Charles Bessonett, Job Stackhouse, Benjamin Walton.

1796. Burgesses, Joseph P. Minnick, John Gosline; High Constable, Francis Stackhouse; Council, Joseph Clunn, Amos Gregg, Job Stackhouse, Timothy Merrick, Jonathan Pursell, William Crawford, Lewis Howard.

1797. Burgesses, Charles Shoemaker, John Gosline; High Constable, Francis Stackhouse ; Council, Joseph Clunn, John Hutchinson, Job Stackhouse, Amos Gregg, Samuel Kinsey, Jonathan Pursell, William Crawford.

1798. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Joseph P. Minnick; High Constable, Francis Stackhouse; Council, William Crawford, John Hutchinson, Richard Lloyd, James Harrison, James Serrill, Joseph Stackhouse, John Baldwin.

1799. Burgesses, John Gosline, Archibald McElroy; High Constable, Francis Stackhouse ; Council, Joseph Clunn, John Hutchinson, Job Stackhouse, Jonathan Pursell, William Crawford, Richard Lloyd, John Hutchinson, Jr.

1802. Burgesses, Samuel Scotton, William Perkins; High Constable, William Crawford; Council, John Gosline, Amos Gregg, Joseph Clunn, Joseph Headley, Jonathan Pursell, James Harrison, John Read.

1803. Burgesses, William Perkins, Samuel Scotton; High Constable, John Johnson; Council, Joseph Clunn, Jonathan Pursell, Joseph Headley, Benjamin Swain, William McElhaney, William Crawford, John Reed.

1804. Burgesses, Samuel Scotton, William Perkins ; High Constable, John Johnson ; Council, Joseph Headley, Benjamin Swain, Joseph Clunn, William McElhaney, William Crawford, Amos Gregg, Job Stackhouse.

1805. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Henry Disborough ; high Constable, Enos Wright; Council, Joseph Clunn, John Reed, William Crawford, Samuel Church, John Patterson, Noah Haines, Joseph Headley.

1806. Burgesses, John Gosline, Henry Disborough; High Constable, Enos Wright; Council, Joseph Clunn, William Crawford, Samuel Scotton, William McIlhany, Benjamin Swain, Joseph Headley, John Patterson.

1807. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, John Reed; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Phineas Buckley, Job Stackhouse, Samuel Lounsbury, John White, Samuel Church, Joseph Stackhouse, Stephen Hibbs.

1808—9. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, J.S. Mitchell; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Phineas Buckley, Joseph Headley, Job Stackhouse, Ebenezer Headley, Joseph Stackhouse, Jonathan Pursell, William Crawford. (John Reed succeeded Crawford in 1809.)

1810. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, J.S. Mitchell; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Phineas Buckley, Samuel Scotton, Jonathan Pursell, Joseph Stackhouse, John Reed, Abraham Warner, Samuel Church.

1811—12. Burgesses, Amos Gregg, Henry Disborough; High Constable, Henry Tomlinson; Council, Joseph Clunn, Phineas Buckley, Jonathan Pursell, John Reed, Samuel Church, Abraham Warner, Samuel Lounsberry. (William Ennis became High Constable in 1812.)

1813. Burgesses, Archibald McElroy, John Bessonett; High Constable, Henry Tomlinson; Council, Joseph Clunn, John Patterson, John White, David Swain, William Crawford, Hugh Tomb, Joseph Vanzant.

1815. Burgesses, Archibald McElroy, John White; High Constable, Abraham Hagerman; Council, Joseph Clunn, William Crawford, John Patterson, John Bessonett, Benjamin Swain, Isaac Pitcher.

1816—17. Burgesses, Louis Bache, Abraham Warner; High Constable, John H. Merrick (Abraham Hagerman in 1817); Council, Benjamin Swain, Henry Disborough, Isaac Pitcher, Amos Gregg, John Bessonett, John Phillips, John Reed.

1818. Burgesses, Archibald McElroy, William Crawford; High Constable, Charles Snyder; Council, Amos Gregg, Benjamin Swain, John Bessonett, John Reed, Ebenezer Stackhouse, David Swain.

1819. Burgesses, Archibald McElroy, John White; High Constable, John Johnson; Council, John G. Priestly, Isaac Pitcher, Samuel Lewis, Henry Tomlinson, Ebenezer Stackhouse, John Bessonett, Lewis P. Kinsey.

1820. Burgesses, Archibald McElroy, Henry Disborough; High Constable, John T. Brown; Council, Ebenezer Stackhouse, John Bessonett, John Kinsey, Isaac Pitcher, John White, Fincher Hellings, John Johnson.

1821. Burgesses, John Phillips, Benjamin Swain; High Constable, John T. Brown; Council, John Reed, William Crawford, Ebenezer Stackhouse, John Hutchinson, Samuel Allen, Joseph Warner, L.P. Kinsey.

1822. Burgesses, John Phillips, Henry Disborough; High Constable, John T. Brown; Council, Benjamin Swain, Joseph Warner, Samuel Allen, David Dorrance, William F. Swift, Ebenezer Stackhouse, William Crawford.

1823. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Henry Disborough; High Constable, John T. Brown; Council, William Crawford, Ebenezer Stackhouse, John Hutchinson, Benjamin Swain, Samuel Allen, John Kinsey, Isaac Wilson.

1824. Burgesses, David Dorrance, Joseph M. Downing; High Constable, John T. Brown; Council, David Swain, James Johnson, Robert Cabeen, John Heiss, William F. Swift, John White.

1825. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Joseph M. Downing; High Constable, William Gale; Council, Ebenezer Stackhouse, Benjamin Swain, Samuel Allen, Robert Cabeen, William F. Swift, John Kinsey, John Bessonett.

1826. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Joseph M. Downing; High Constable, John Johnson; Council, Ebenezer Stackhouse, Benjamin Swain, William F. Swift, Samuel Allen, Robert Cabeen, John Bessonett, John Kinsey.

1827. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Joseph M. Downing; High Constable, John Johnson; Council, Robert Cabeen, Samuel Allen, Benjamin Swain, William F. Swift, John Bessonett, John Kinsey, William Laing.

1828. Burgesses, Joseph M. Downing, Benjamin Swain; High Constable, John Johnson; Council, Robert Cabeen, John Bessonett, Samuel Allen, William Laing, John Hutchinson, John Boyd, L.P. Kinsey.

1829. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Benjamin Swain; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Samuel Allen, Robert Cabeen, William Laing, John Hutchinson, John Boyd, L.P. Kinsey, John Bessonett.

1830. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, Joseph M. Downing; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, John Bessonett, Samuel Allen, Robert Cabeen, William Laing, Robert C. Beatty, Eleazer Fenton, L.P. Kinsey.

1831. Burgesses, Joseph Warner, James Johnson; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, John Bessonett, Edward Swain, Robert Cabeen, William Hawk, Robert C. Beatty, Eleazer Fenton, L.P. Kinsey.

1832—33. Burgesses, William F. Smith, James Johnson; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Robert Cabeen, William Hawk, H.N. Bostwick, Samuel Allen, Edward Swain, James Harrison, John Bessonett.

1834. Burgesses, William F. Swift, James R. Scott; High Constable, William Kinsey; Council, Robert Cabeen, John Bessonett, William Hawk, Samuel Allen, H.N. Bostwick, James Harrison, Edward Swain.

1835. Burgesses, William Hawk, James R. Scott; High Constable, William Killingsworth; Council, Samuel Allen, H.N. Bostwick, Eleazer Fenton, James Harrison, Edward Swain, John Dorrance, William Kinsey.

1836. Burgesses, William Kinsey, Benjamin Brown; High Constable, Timothy Stackhouse; Council, Samuel Allen, James Harrison, Jonathan Adams, John Heiss, David Woodington, Gilbert Tomlinson, Robert Patterson.

1837. Burgesses, William Kinsey, Joseph B. Pennington; High Constable, Lewis P. Kinsey; Council, Samuel Allen, James Brudon, David E. Woodington, Robert Patterson, Joseph F. Warner, William Killingsworth, William F. Swift.

1838. Burgesses, William Hawk, Joseph B. Pennington; High Constable, John Feaster; Council, Charles W. Pierce, Robert Cabeen, Gilbert Tomlinson, John W. Vandegrift, Samuel Allen, John Dorrance, Isaac W. Hall.

1839. Burgesses, William Hawk, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Robert Patterson; Council, Samuel Allen, John Dorrance, Robert Cabeen, James Irvine, James Johnson, John Johnson, James Brudon.

1840. Burgesses, Charles Banes, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Robert Patterson; Council, James Johnson, John Wright, John Johnson, James Brudon, James Irvine, William Kinsey, Charles Smith.

1841. Burgesses, Charles Banes, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Robert Patterson; Council, James Johnson, James Brudon, James Irvine, John Wright, William Kinsey, Andrew W. Gilkeson, James W. Weiss.

1842. Burgesses, William Kinsey, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Robert Patterson; Council, Lewis P. Kinsey, Andrew W. Gilkeson, John Dorrance, Benjamin Malone, H.N. Bostwick, Samuel Allen, James Brudon.

1843. Burgesses, William Kinsey, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Joseph R. Hellings; Council, Chester Sturdevant, Benjamin Ball, Andrew W. Gilkeson, Lewis P. Kinsey, James Brudon, Benjamin Malone.

1844. Burgesses, William Kinsey, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Joseph R. Hellings; Council, James Johnson, Andrew W. Gilkeson, Robert Patterson, John Wright, John Stewart, John K. loft, Augustus Gerrard.

1845. Burgesses, James Brudon, Benjamin Blinn; High Constable, Charles Titus; Council, Lewis P. Kinsey, John Wright, John K. Holt, Andrew W. Gilkeson, Robert Patterson, Morton Righter, Jackson Gilkeson.

1846. Burgesses, Benjamin Malone, Augustus Gerrard; High Constable, Charles Titus; Council, Andrew W. Gilkeson, William R. Phillips, Lewis P. Kinsey, Anthony Swain, Henry M. Wright, Jackson Gilkeson, James Phillips.

1847. Burgesses, Mahlon G. Hibbs, Augustus Gerrard; high Constable, Lemuel Nilly; Council, Andrew W. Gilkeson, Lewis P. Kinsey, John K. Holt, James Brudon, Joseph Wright, Jackson Gilkeson, William Kinsey.

1848. Burgesses, William Hawk, Charles Thompson; High Constable, Lemuel Nilly; Council, Anthony Swain, Samuel Allen, John Eastburn, William H. White, Louis A. Hoguet, George C. Johnson, Alexander Morrison.

1849. Burgesses, Isaac Van Horn, Robert Patterson; High Constable, Charles Titus; Council, James Brudon, Andrew W. Gilkeson, John Wright, John Davis, John K. Holt, Lewis P. Kinsey, William Earley.

1850. Burgesses, Daniel P. Forst, William H. White; High Constable, Chilion W. Higgs; Council, John Dorrance, William M. Downing, William Killingsworth, John W. Bray, Robert Booz, James Rue, Albert L. Packer.

1851. Burgess, Daniel P. Forst; High Constable, James Phillips; Council, John Dorrance, John W. Bray, William M. Downing, Robert Booz, William Killingsworth, James Rue, A.L. Packer, William H. White, L.A. Hoguet.

1852. Burgess, William Kinsey; High Constable, Giles S. Winder; Council, William Bache, John W. Bray, William M. Downing, Edmund Lawrence, James Rue, Daniel Street, William H. White, Henry M. Wright; Joseph Wright.

1853. Burgess, William Kinsey; High Constable, Giles S. Winder; Council, Valentine Booz, Jesse W. Knight, James W. Martin, Henry M. Wright, William Bache, Edmund Lawrence, Daniel Street, John S. Kinsey, John S. Brelsford.

1854. Burgess, William Kinsey; High Constable, Giles S. Winder; Council, Samuel Allen, Valentine Booz, Jesse Wright, William M. Downing, W.H. White, John Vanzant, A.L. Packer, J.S. Brelsford, L.P. Kinsey.

1855. Burgess, Daniel P. Forst; High Constable, Robert Sanderson; Council, James Rue, William Bache, W.H. White, Joseph S. Pierce, John Davis, John M. Brown, Charles W. Pierce, Jr., Nathan Taylor, Henry M. Wright.

1856. Burgess, Albert L. Packer; High Constable, Giles S. Winder; Council, William M. Downing, Valentine Booz, James Brudon, John S. Brelsford, Christian Sulger, John Vauzant, Nathan Gaskell, Thomas B. Bailey, Lewis M. Wharton.

1857. Burgess, A.L. Packer; High Constable, John H. Smith; Council, William M. Downing, Valentine Booz, John Vanzant, James Brudon, Nathan Gaskell, Thomas B. Bailey, John S. Brelsford, Christian Sulger, Lewis M. Wharton.

1858. Burgess, A.L. Packer; High Constable, William Fine; Council, Valentine Booz, James Brudon, Jacob McBrien, William K. Evans, A.J. Hibbs, L.M. Wharton, David Michener, H.L. Strong, John Dorrance.

1859. Burgess, A.L. Packer; High Constable, Samuel Winder; Council, John Dorrance, James Brudon, Jacob McBrien, H.L. Strong, William K. Evans, David Michener, Thomas B. Bailey, William H. White, Lewis M. Wharton.

1860. Burgess, A.L. Packer; High Constable, Samuel Winder; Council, John Dorrance, James Brudon, Jacob McBrien, James W. Martin, John S. Brelsford, Joseph M. Disborough, Robert Brooks, A.J. Hibbs, William K.

1861. Burgess, James Brudon; High Constable, William D. Fenton; Council, James W. Martin, Henry M. Wright, William H. White, William B. Baker, John W. Bailey, Ellwood Doron, John D. Mendenhall, Jacob McBrien, Lewis M. Wharton.

1862. Burgess, Robert Patterson; High Constable, John Taylor; Council, Jacob McBrien, Ellwood Doron, William H. White, John W. Bailey, Wesley M. Lee, Thomas B. Bailey, Charles G. Stout, William B. Baker, Lewis M. Wharton.

1863. Burgess, Robert Patterson; High Constable, John Taylor; Council, Ellwood Doron, Jacob McBrien, Nathaniel Brodnax, James Brudon, Robert W. Brooks, Lewis M. Wharton, Charles G. Stout, William A. Stewart, Wesley M. Lee, Timothy Stackhouse.

1864. Burgess, Robert Patterson; High Constable, John Taylor; Council, Thomas Scott, William Hawk, Timothy Stackhouse, William B. Baker, Wilham H. White, Wesley M. Lee, Ellwood Doron, Nathaniel Brodnax, James Brudon, Robert W. Brooks.

1865. Burgess, Robert Patterson; High Constable, Anthony D. Minster; Council, Robert W. Brooks, John W. Bailey, James Foster, John Taylor, Ellwood Doron, William B. Baker, Thomas Scott, W.W. White, T. Stackhouse, William Hawk.

1866. Burgess, Robert Patterson; high Constable, John Taylor; Council, Robert W. Brooks, James V. Foster, John W. Bailey, John Taylor, Ellwood Doron, James Brudon, Thomas Scott, Charles C. Douglass, Nathaniel Brodnax, T. Stackhouse.

1867. Burgess, Ellwood Doron; High Constable, Reuben Pidrick; Council, Dr. L.V. Rosseau, Dr. E.J. Groom, James W. Martin, Henry A. Bailey, J. Wesley Wright, James Brudon, Thomas Scott, Charles C. Douglass, Nathaniel Brodnax, T. Stackhouse.

1868. Burgess, Ellwood Doron; High Constable, John A. Worrell; Council, Allen D. Garwood, Robert W. Brooks, James Brudon, Thomas B. Bailey, Charles C. Douglass, L.V. Rosseau, E.J. Groom, James W. Martin, Henry A. Bailey, J. Wesley Wright.

1869. Burgess, Ellwood Doron; Council, John R. Green, Charles Pierce, Joseph Bailey, S.V. Rosseau, E.J. Groom, Charles C. Douglass, Allen D. Garwood, Robert W. Brooks, James Brudon, Thomas B. Bailey.

1870. Burgess, Ellwood Doron; Council, John W. Bailey, William H. White, Gilbert Green, John Taylor, J. Wesley Wright, John R. Green, Charles Pierce, Joseph Bailey, S.V. Rosseau, E.J. Groom.

1871. Burgess, Symington Phillips; Council, Samuel Pike, Morton Walmesley, Charles Pierce, Joseph Bailey, James Brudon, John W. Bailey, W.H. White, Gilbert Green, John Taylor, J. Wesley Wright.

1872. Burgess, Symington Phillips; Council, Albert L. Packer, I.S. Tomlinson, W.B. Baker, William Jones, J. Wesley Wright, Samuel Pike, Morton Walmesley, Charles Pierce, Joseph Bailey, James Brudon.

1873. Burgess, Charles E. Scott; Council, S.S. Rue, C.W. Pierce, James M. Slack, David Stackhouse, Samuel Pike, A.L. Packer, I.S. Tomlinson, W.B. Baker, William Jones, J. Wesley Wright.

1874. Burgess, Charles E. Scott; Council, Morton A. Walmesley, A.L. Packer, Henry M. Wright, L.A. Hoguet, J. Wesley Wright, S.S. Rue, C.W. Pierce, J.M. Slack, Samuel Pike, David Stackhouse.

1875. Burgess, Charles E. Scott; Council, Charles W. Pierce, James M. Slack, Samuel Pike, S.S. Rue, Jonathan Wright, J. Wesley Wright, Henry M. Wright, L.A. Hoguet, A.L. Packer, Morton A. Walmesley.

1876. Burgess, Charles E. Scott; Council, H.M. Wright, J. Wesley Wright, Charles York, Allen L. Garwood, Symington Phillips, C.W. Pierce, J.M. Slack, Samuel Pike, S.S. Rue, Jonathan Wright.

1877. Burgess, James M. Slack; Council, H.M. Wright, Symington Phillips, A.L. Garwood, C. York, W.H. Booz, William Lauderbaugh, Thomas B. Harkins, C.W. Pierce, S.S. Rue, J.W. Wright.

1878. Burgess, James M. Slack; Council, C.W. Pierce, Symington Phillips, W.H. Booz, Charles York, Charles Scheide, S.S. Rue, H.M. Wright, Thomas B. Harkins, Charles Fenton, J.W. Wright.

1879. Burgess, Allen L. Garwood; Council, L.A. Hoguet, W.H. Booz, R.W. Holt, C.W. Pierce, Jr., T.B. Harkins, Henry Sutch, C.H. Fenton, Symington Phillips, C.E. Scheide, H.M. Wright, J.W. Wright.

1880. Burgess, Allen L. Garwood; Council, Charles E. Scheide, William H. Grundy, John S. Brelsford, James Wright, W. Taylor Potts, Michael Dougherty, L.A. Hoguet, W.H. Booz, R.W. Holt, C.W. Pierce, Jr., P.B. Harkins, Henry Sutch.

1881. Burgess, J. Wesley Wright; Council, John S. Brelsford, W.H. Booz, M. Dougherty, William H. Grundy, R.W. Holt, L.A. Hoguet, William J. Jones, W. Taylor Potts, C.W. Pierce, Henry Rue, Charles E. Scheide, James Wright.

1882. Burgess, J. Wesley Wright; Council, John Burton, W.H. Booz, Nelson Green, R.W. Holt, L.A. Hoguet, William J. Jones, James Lyndall, C.W. Pierce, Henry Rue, William Tabram, James Warden, James Wright.

1883. Burgess, J. Wesley Wright; Council, Nelson Green, A. Holding, A.K. Joyce, James Lyndall, C.N. Pierce, G.A. Shoemaker, Joseph Sherman, William Tabram, James Warden, Jacob M. Winder, James Wright, John Burton.

1884. Burgess, J. Wesley Wright; Council, G.A. Shoemaker, C.N. Pierce, A.K. Joyce, Joseph Sherman, A. holding, J.M. Winder, James Wright, Nelson Green, W.S. Daniels, William Tabram, Thomas B. Harkins, A. Loechner.

1885. Burgess, William H. Grundy; Council, Francis Fenimore, A.K. Joyce, C.N. Pierce, G.A. Shoemaker, C.H. Holding, R.W. Holt, James Wright, Nelson Green, W. Daniels, William Tabram, T.B. Harkins, A. Loechner.

1886. Burgess, William H. Grundy; Council, W.S. Daniels, F.N. Booz, A.L. Garwood, R.S. Buseman, A. Loechner, James Wright, Francis Fenimore, A.K. Joyce, C.N. Pierce, G.A. Shoemaker, C.H. holding, R.W. Holt.

1887. Burgess, William H. Grundy; Council, Francis Fenimore, A.K. Joyce, G.A. Shoemaker, C.H. Brudon, Henry Rue, S.W. Black, W.S. Daniels, F.N. Booz, A.L. Garwood, R.S. Buseman, A. Loechner, James Wright.




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