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tions. The Dutch were in an equally peaceful mood. Stuyvesant had built the fort upon his own responsibility without "so much as a hint of his intentions" to his principals, and the home directors of the company declined to approve the measure until they learned how the affair was treated by the Swedish government.
    Whether acting upon subsequent orders or in direct violation of his instructions is not clearly determined, but Rysingh signalized his accession to power by the capture of Fort Casimir. A force of twenty or thirty men landed from a vessel and demanded its surrender, and before the astounded commandant had fully comprehended the situation were in full possession of the post. A part of the garrison retired to Manhatran, while those who remained, with the Dutch settlers, promptly took the oath: of allegiance to the conquerors. The fort was renamed Trinity in recognition of the day (Trinity Sunday) on which it was captured and garrisoned. The fort on Christina creek was strengthened, and a town laid out just back of it. In the following month, June, 1654, a great convocation of Indians was held on Tinicum island by which the Swedish rifles were confirmed and the league of friendship renewed. With the new official had came a large number of people, so that two months after his arrival he estimates in a private letter that " four times more" land was under cultivation than when he arrived, and where be " found only seventy persons" were now, " including Hollanders and others," three hundred and sixty-eight. These numbers refer to "freemen" or settlers, exclusive of servants and soldiers, which would raise the actual number of population to nearly five hundred. But this prosperity was destined to be short-lived.
    The Swedish government had complacently accepted the result of Rysingh's rash action as the end of the controversy, and was planning for the support of the colony on a peace basis when the Dutch, freed from the exactions of the war with England, were preparing to subvert the whole colony. It was with the greatest secrecy, therefore, that five armed vessels were dispatched to Stuyvesant, in the spring of 1655, with authority to further augment this force if deemed necessary. With the proverbial caution of his race, the director took ample time to carefully mature his plans anti perfect his arrangements, so that it was not until September that he appeared before the captured fort with seven vessels and six or seven hundred men.. It would have been worse than folly for the feeble garrisons of Forts Trinity and Christina to seriously resist such a force, and the garrison of the first accepted the very favorable terms offered and capitulated on the second day. Fort Christina, " a small and feeble work," commanded by Rysingh in person, held out during a bloodless siege of fourteen days, when it surrendered on terms even more favorable than those accorded to the garrison of Trinity. But, in the meanwhile, the Dutch had not been inactive, and the defenseless portion of the colony felt the ruthless power of the conquerors. The report of Rysingh and the narrative of

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Campanius furnish evidence of treatment That accords with the character of freebooters rather than a military expedition. Houses and plantations were laid waste; cattle, goats, swine, and poultry were killed, and even horses wantonly shot; many were plundered and stripped to the skin, "and the whole country left so desolate that scarce any means are remaining for the subsistence of the inhabitants."
    The Swedish government was not disposed to quietly submit to this conquest of ifs colony, but being then engaged in a struggle with Poland its protests and demand for restitution were ignored. But toward the colonists the conquerors the not hear so hold a front. They appear to have entertained a lively fear lest the Swedes should rise upon them and dispossess them of the fruits of their victory. The vice-director and representative of the new regime John Paul Jacquet, was instructed to take "good notice" of their behavior, and on the exhibition of insubordination the ill-affected wore to he required to depart, but this was to be dune " with all imaginable civility." They were not to be allowed in the fort all night, and in making grants care must be taken to have sixteen or twenty to reside together. Such grants, however, were only to he made on condition that the grantees take an oath to assist the fort. In March, 1656 a Swedish ship with large reinforcements for the colony sailed into the river unconscious of the turn of affairs. The military authorities refused to permit the vessel to pass the fort, but taking on board a company of friendly Indians it proceeded on its upward course with impunity, the Dutch fearing to antagonize the savages. In spite of explicit orders front the Dutch authorities to the contrary these immigrants were landed and settled.
    In 1656, the financial embarrassment of the company led to a division of the colony, the portion lying below Christina creek being transferred to the city oŁ Amsterdam in satisfaction of its claim against the company. The portion retained by the company was far the most valuable so far as the Indian trade was concerned, but less secure if there was any just apprehension of insurrection. The population was almost exclusively trade tip of Swedes and Finns. These people had taken the oath of allegiance to the company, but they will retained their former magistrates and all minor officials. In 1658, Stuyresant visited the river to make a personal examination of affairs and to provide for the security of the Dutch control. After renewing their oath of allegiance the representative Swedes boldly requested an amelioration of the restrictions imposed upon their people, and that in the event of any difference week, Holland and Sweden they might be considered neutral. The director not in a position to he arbitrary in his dealings and so granted what could evaded, but was scarcely reassured of the loyalty of the colonists. His port, doubtless, reflected his fears, and the home directors, in view of the bold proposal" of neutrality, urged the substitution of Dutch officials for the Swedes, as well as the use of " fair means" to induce the latter to settle among

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she dominant race. This fear of the subject people was entertained even in the city colony where the Dutch settlers were far more numerous, and the Mary- handers at this time claiming jurisdiction over the Delaware under their charter increased the worthy director's disturbed state of mind.
    It was about this time that Stuyvesant ordered his representative on the South river to collect the Swedes and Finns into one or two villages by force. The enforcement of such an order was sure to be attended with great difficulty There is no evidence that the Swedes were conscious of their power, or if that they had any disposition to resist the constituted authorities. The military force of the colony contained a number of this people, and they had with them still some grave and experienced military officers, but they made no show of forcible resistance to the tyrannical order. They made a strong presentation of the. injustice of the measure, however, and eventually convinced the director's lieutenant, who strongly represented this view of the case. Thin dud not end the matter, hat persuasion having failed the authorities did not dare to invoke force. There was another element in the case that complicated the situation. and was subsequently influential in transferring the whole colony to tile jurisdiction of the city. Dissensions had arisen between the officials of the, two colonies and the city colony, whether animated by a more enlightened policy or a desire to profit at the other's expense is not certain, offered such liberal inducement to the dissatisfied Swedes as to attract wane to it, while others emigrated to the Sassafras river. This disaffection and emigration became so general that, fen ring the loss of the entire colony, the director abandoned the objectionable policy.
    In 1664 the whole river country was at length transferred to the city, D'IIinoyossa receiving it in behalf of the burgomasters of Amsterdam from Stuyvesant. Their very liberal policy was at once apparent in the appointment of resident Swedes to places of important trust. Still the subject race found the new authorities less liberal in the matter of trade, and refused to transfer their allegiance unless granted the sauce facilities formerly enjoyed. The career of the city's administration, however, was too _short to develop a distinct line of policy, and the Swedes, while looking forward to less personal restriction and more confidential relations with the authorities, had hardly acquired any advantages from the change when a new nation demanded their allegiance.
    The city fathers were doubtless aware that the transfer was of uncertain value. The Swedish minister at the Hague had renewed the demand of his nation for a restitution of the colony, and Sweden, once more prepared to support its demands by force; was even then fitting out an armament to restore its authority on the Delaware. But a series of maritime disasters intervened And subsequent events rendered another effort imprudent. But Stuyvesant had scarcely uttered his recognition of "the hand of God" in thus relieving his people "from all apprehension and dread" when danger assailed him from as

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unexpected quarter. In the same year Charles II. granted to his brother the territory embraced in the states of New York and Now Jersey, whereupon the Duke of York promptly prepared to take forcible possession of his grant. Four well-armed vessels were soon under way, under the commend of Richard Nicolls, and in September appeared off Manhattan island. New Amsterdam fell without the firing of a gun, and the Delaware colony being under a separate jurisdiction, Sir Robert Carr was at once dispatched to bring it under subjection. He arrived on the last day of September, and sailing past the forts soon made friends with tire Swedes, not withstanding the persuasion of the Dutch to the contrary. A three days’ parley led the Dutch to capitulate on the favorable terms offered, but the valiant D'Hinoyossa, rejecting all propositions, with fifty men determined to defend the poorly prepared fort against all comers. It was a useless exhibition of pluck, and cost the Dutch the loss of three killed and ten wounded, without inflicting any loss upon the English, beside giving the victorious forces an excuse for pillage. Carr's short career was characterized by conduct only less ruthless than the Dutch in their conquest, for which he was soon after superseded. The change of dynasty was accompanied by a change of names. New Amsterdam became New York, and New Amstel became New Castle.
    This change was effected without shock to the local institutions. By the terms of capitulation all property of the colonists was secured to the owners; the magistrates were continued in their offices with unimpaired jurisdiction tile privileges of worship were unrestricted, and "the privilege of trading into any of his Majesty's dominions as freely as any Englishman" was accorded to all after taking the oath of allegiance. The seat of government remained at New York. In the governor and council residing there were vested the executive and supreme judicial powers, and upon the. court of assizes, composed of justices appointed by and presided over by the governor, were devolved the duties of supreme legislation. The governor, who was thus practically clad with dictatorial power, " promulgated a code of laws, and modified and repeated them at pleasure."
    "This code was the " Duke's laws" collated from these in practice in the various English colonies, and adopted in New Cork, but not proclaimed on the Delaware until some years later. Here the older regulations and procedure of the Swedes were observed until 1668, when a central court with a local jurisdiction similar to the court of assizes was established. In the "resolutions and directions" for this purpose it was provided that "so often as complaint is

*The territory west of the Delaware bay and ricer was not included in the duke’s grant, but the colony there was so associated with the, colony of New Amsterdam that its conquest followed as a matter of course. Until subsequently granted to Penn. this region remained under tile protection of tin, duke, who made no difficulty in surrendering it to the grantee.

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made, the commissioned officer, Captain Carre, shall call the schout, with Hans Block, Israel Helm, Peter Mambo, Peter Cock, Peter Alricks, or any two of them, as counsellors to advise, hear anti determine, by the major vote, what is just, equitable, and necessary in the case or cases in question." The some persons were "to advise and direct what is best to be done in all cases of difficulty which may arise from the Indians, and to give their counsel and orders for arming of the several plantations and planters, who must obey and attend their summons upon such occasions." In the determination of the chief civil affairs, Captain Carr seems to have had the "casting rote when votes are equal." The new code was to "be showed and frequently communicated to the said counsellors and all others, to the end that being therewith acquainted" the practice of it might he established at a convenient time. Appeal to the court at New York was provided for in all important cases, and no offensive hostilities against the Indiana were to be undertaken without directions from the seat of government.
In May, 1667 Governor Nicolls was succeeded by Francis Lovelace. During his administration the former had shown himself remarkably considerate of the prejudices of the subject people, and had firmly established his government in the good will of the Delaware colonists. It is not clear how much the disturbances of the succeeding administration were due to the character of the new governor, but he was a man of far less prudence, and possessed far less of the judicial temperament which characterized his predecessor. Among the earliest acts of his administration was the establishment of a central court, and soon after he was called upon to decide the question of the sale of intoxicants to the natives. Two murders had been committed by certain Indians while drunk, and the tribe sent a request by one of the magistrates that the governor would prohibit the selling of "strong liquors" on the whole river. This matter he referred to the local courts, agreeing to confirm whatever action they should take. Not long after this the government was startled by the rumor of an intended insurrection among the Finns, who resided in the vicinity of Upland. The Indian outrage had created some alarm, and there still lingered with the Dutch residents something of the old suspicion of the Swedes and Finns. It took little, therefore, to create a fresh apprehension, in which the English officials evidently shared. The cause of all this disturbance was "a certain Swede at Delaware, who gives himself out to be son of Coningsmark, heretofore one of the King of Sweden's generals, and goes up and down from one place to another, frequently raising speeches, very seditious and false, tending to the disturbance of his majesty's peace, and rise laws of the government in such cases provided, to whom is associated one Henry Coleman, one of the Finns, and an inhabitant at Delaware, who hath left his habitation, cattle and corn, without any care taken for them, to run after the other person." It was suspected that Coleman, "being well versed in the Indian languages, amongst

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whom both be and the other keep, only watch some opportunity to do mischief to his neighbours, by killing their cattle, if not worse." A number of colonists of good standing became involved in the difficulty, beside "divers simple and ignorant people;" but the Delaware officials were early successful in "circumventing and securing the prime instigator of this commotion," and the excitement subsided. The principal offender was subsequently whipped, branded with the letter " R.," and sold into slavery. His confederate was not captured, nor is it clear that any others were punished, though the governor and council adjudged "that the chiefest of his accomplices, and those concerned with him. must do and forfeit to his majesty half of their goods and chattels, and that a small mulet or fine be imposed on the rest that were drawn in and followed him."
    In 1671 the question of redress for the Indian murders again came up through the instructions to Captain Carr from the governor, who was not disposed to let the offenders escape punishment. The mass of the Indians were unwilling to surrender the guilty ones, and such was the general determination that a friendly sachem suggested that the two savages with others be invited to a "Kinticoy," and when engaged in the merriment of the occasion some one should be "hired to knock them in the head." While such a solution of the difficulty was not to be entertained, no other seemed free from serious difficulty, and the determination of the governor and the Indians at length gave rise to a fear among the Delaware officials that serious hostilities would occur. Orders were issued to the settlers to retire into towns for their better security, and all capable of bearing arms, from sixteen to sixty years of age, were to be always provided with necessary ammunition. Care was to be taken not to provide the savages with the means for war, provisions were not to be exported, and measures were to be taken to enlist the Susquehanna Indians to join against the murderers and such as should harbor them."
    In September, Peter Alricks was in New York conferring with the. governor in regard to the number of savages, their disposition, and the facts of the murders, and doubtless with reference to the fears of the officials on the river. The measures they had taken were approved, and the governor of New Jersey notified that the offenders bad taken refuge within his jurisdiction. The latter promptly raised "a handsome party" to co-operate in bringing "the murderers to condign punishment," but it was then November and too late for an offensive campaign. Fortunately, Carr had given up his preparations, or the unstable governor would have plunged the river colony into an unnecessary war. On Alricks's return from New York, a conference was held with certain Indian sachem at Peter Rambo's house, which resulted in an agreement on the part of the natives to bring in the murderers, dead or alive, within six days. One escaped, but the other met his fate rather than flee, and was delivered dead.
    In the following year Lovelace made elaborate preparations to visit the

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Delaware settlements. His route across the country was indicated, and an officer with three men dispatched to announce his coming and insure such preparation for his reception as comported with the dignity of his office. It is probable that the visit was made, as in September provision is made for the payment of the ferriage of the troops "to and from Neversink, in the expedition to Delaware," but all record of his presence on the river has been lost. Another distinguished individual visited the river this year in the person of the celebrated George Fox, founder of the Society of Friends. He came on his return from a visit to New England, and followed the overland course, which appears only recently to have come into use. He was guided by Indians, and reached the river near the site of Burlington. Here he stayed for the night, and on the next day, with the aid of the natives’ canoes, crossed by way of the island to the west side. Here he found none of his followers, and in two days’ journey reached Now Castle, where he was entertained by the governor's representative, Captain Carr.
    Close upon the visit of this apostle of peace came rumors of war. It was in this year that hostilities between England and Holland broke out, and early in August, of 1673, a Dutch fleet sailed into New York bay, intent on conquest. The fort made a feeble resistance and yielded, and with it the whole colony came under the sway of "their High Mightinesses, the Lords States General of the United Netherlands, and his Serene Highness, the Prince of Orange." On the 12th of September, delegates from the Delaware settlements appeared in New York and made their submission, and the Dutch were once more constructively in possession of their former domain in the "new world." This transfer of allegiance and power caused scarcely a ripple in the affairs of the river colony. Existing privileges were confirmed, and in addition exemption from all rent charges and excise on liquors consumed on the South river was granted for a period of three years. A change in the local judiciary, which was subsequently adopted by the English, was effected at this time. Three districts were formed and courts established at Hoernkill, New Amsted, and Upland, the jurisdiction of the latter extending from the Christina creek upwards to the head of the river. Each court was composed of four magistrates selected from eight persons nominated "by a plurality of the votes" of the people. Peter Alricks was appointed schont and acted as the lieutenant of the governor, residing at New York. Public property and debts due the government were confiscated, but all private property belonging to officials or others taking the oath of allegiance was respected.
    The close of the war in 1674 and the terms of peace which stipulated for the return of all places captured daring the hostilities, brought the colony again into the possession of the English. That the Duke of York's title might not be obscured by the events of the war, a new grant of this territory wars made to him, and in the fall Sir Edmund Andros arrived to assume the govern-

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rent in his behalf- One of the earliest acts of his administration was the publication of a proclamation confirming " all former grants, privileges and con cessions" obtained under the former representation of the Duke- The former carte were restored, the "Duke's laws' established, and ,all magistrates and civil officers belonging thereunto were to be chosen accordingly." The office of shout had been merged into that of sheriff, and Edmund Cantwell appointed thereto in the last year of Lovelace's administration. On the return of the English he was restored to that office, and with William Tom acv ap. fainted to take possession of the fort at New Cantle together with all military stores belonging to the government on the river. In addition to these duties, Cantwell appears to have discharged the ,duties of collector and surreyor also, IM m have been the chief executive on the river.
    There are few data from which an estimate may he formed of the progress attained by the colony on the Delaware at the return of the English to power. t the time of the Dutch conquest the colony was experiencing its greatest perity under the Swedes. The forts on the Jersey shore and on the east lank of the Schuylkill had been abandoned, but the improvements had nearly reached that river in an almost continuous line from Christina creek, while the settlements of the Hollanders extended the area of civilization some distance below the creek. More attention was given to the cultivation of products for (-support than ever before, while the trade with the Indians showed no
oution. In the following decade. notwithstanding the fully of both the city d company administrations, the population increased. and in 14;;1 an estimate of the whole European population on the river places the number at seventeen hundred. The increase in the next six years was probably offset by the emigrations caused by the tymonical policy of the company its I 61A, and the of conditions imposed by the city proprietors about the same time. At is time, however, the advance settlements bad passed Tacony creek, and in 1677 "a list of tydable persons' exhibits an account of seventy-five such ents within the district which took its name from this stream.
    The character of the settlers was probably n fair representation of the old orld classitication of the time. There were a few persons of the privileged many of whom were in the official employment of the colonial government. them, distinguished from the boers and slaves as freemen, were attracted here fokdy by the profit to be derived from the cheap purchase and cultivation of public lands. The mass of the population, however, was undoubtedly Cumof 
indentured servants and slaves, who were employed by the privileged and the government in the cultivation of the plantations. Stock had a inert place in the colonial system of husbandry. both the Swedish and governments taking care to provide a good supply of the different domes Animals on easy terms. With rare exceptions the dwellings were of stout cry logs, with chimney's of brick manufactured in the colony, and domestic

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life was everywhere characterized by great simplicity and plainness. Up to the return of the English in N i.5. two public mills, the one built by the Swedes on Cobb's creek, and the other by the Dutch near New Castle, suffered for the necommo Lotion of the planters. Beside these there were no public mauufactories. Each household supplied its necessities by its own industry and inge- nuity, paying its public dues in stock, grain, and peltries.
    In Sweden, religion and education were in the care of the %late, and the minister was often also the teacher- Where these duties were divided tire teacher was generally officially connected with the church, leading the singing, sometimes conducting the services in the absence of the minister. and occasion- ally acting as Sexton and bell-ringer. :\n important provision for the first Swedish colony sent to the Delaware was, therefore, a minister, an office which was supplied by the Reverend Reorns Torkillus. In 16 Lo. among other privileges granted the Holland colony established in New Sweden, was permiglion for " the exercise of the pretended Reformed religion, in such manner, however, that those who profess the one or the other religion, live in peace, abstaining from every useless dispute, from all scandal and from all abuse." At the same time the patron; of Cite colony were required to support " at all times as many mini+tees and schoolmasters us the number of inhabitants shall seem to require-" Subequently, when governor Printz was sent to the colony be was enjoined by his instructions to take all proper care •• that divine service be zealously performed," not only among the settlers but to "exert himself, that the same wild people may gradually be instructed in the truths and worsbipoftheChrintianrefigion." The Reverend John Campanius accompanied Printz, but beyond the fact that he translated Luther's catechism into Indian dialect, but very Little is known of his ministerial labors-
    The Dutch were equally progressive in their policy, and from the first a prominent provision for all proposed colonies to America was for the appointment and support of " comforters of the sick, schoolmasters, and such Like nec- essary officers-" in 11356, when the city of Amsterdam became interested in the river colony. provision was made by that corporation for the erection of a suitable building for divine service, "also a house for a school which can like- wise be occupied by a person who will hereafter be sexton- psalm-setter and schoolmaster-" Evert Pieterson was sent out in this capacity early in the next
year, and in August reported a school of twenty-rive children- In the " Duke's Laws" a similar interest is manifested. By these the constables and over- seers are strictly required frequently to admonish the inhabitants of instructing; their children slid servants in matters of religion, and the Laws of the country," In the same code it was required " that in each parish within this government a church be built in the most convenient part thereof, capable to receive and accommodate two hundred persons," but the stipulated freedom of conscience

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was preserved toy provision that none should be " molested, fined. or imprisoned for differing in judgment in matters of religion who profess Christianity."
    Itut with all this legislation the cause of education and religion had magic but very moderate progress when the colony was restored to the English. Accepted historical authorities differ so widely upon the subject that it is difficult to arrive at any definite conclusion, but these writers substantially agree that while prizing the benefits to he derived from religious culture, the people were too poor to maintain schools and churches unaided, and that the frequent changes in the governing power contributed greatly to the inevitable 11 law's delay;' so that the practical outcome of all the provisions for the encourage ment of education wad religion was meagre indeed. It is doubtful if any school house had been built in the colony at this time, and there were but three church buildings, one erected by Minuit at Christina. one by Printz on Tinicum, and site erected in 1666 at Crane Hook. Of five Swedish pastors who had served in the colony, only one remained. and he " served both the Swedes and the Dutch."
    The lines of travel were simply trails which the stranger followed only with the aid of guide.. It is uncertain how early overland communication was established with Yew York. Such journeys are noted as early its 106, though probably they were exceptional until after the advent of the English.* The course at first led to the Delaware river at Burlington island, but Cite passage at the fall, being easier, the river was subsequently crossed at that point. Local communication was but little better. The waterways were much used, the settlements being located near the margin of the creeks and rivers for this reason. The usual trail guided the traveller by land, save perhaps in the vicinity of Christina, New Castle. and Whorekills, where the " highways" wore somewhat cleared. There is no mention of wheeled vehicles to he found, but a smith, wheelwright, and carpenter were among the provisions made in 1656 by the city of Amsterdam for its portion of the colony. Oxen were generally used us draft animals, and it is believed that horses were only employed in travelling and for light transportation by means of tacks. though the Governor is informed in 1660 " that the horses are misused by the Swedes," and that " the mares am spoiled be drawing the whole morning heavy beams." Bridges were not unknown. In 1656, a bridge was ordered constructed "over the creek, near the fortress Casimir," and in 1646 Printz refers to a bridge probably erected over the " Minquas creek," lout generally an Indian canoe conveyed the traveller over unfordable streams, while the animals were compelled to swim behind.- Jerk timid) was sent with an escort of twelve ur fifteen men in 1656 to gain tidings of tin landing td' Swedish immigrants and on April 2111x. Krygier being ordered overland to receive the government property from Jacquet, on his retirement from office. asked for Ensign Smuts, u a guide, '• he having passed the road several times."

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The chief articles of trade were peltries and tobacco, large quantities of each being annually exported- There was also a considerable local exchange of grain and stock, as the Dutch were generally exclusively engaged in trade, and the Swedes in agriculture. 'Monetary expressions of values were still made in Dutch coins, though the beaver-skin was the general medium of exchange among the whites, the value of which was established by the governor, in 11177, at eight guilders,* Wampum was still current with the Indians, and remained so nearly to the time of Penn's arrival- In the early competition between the Swedes and Dutch for this trade, the former " nearly spoiled" it in the estimation of the latter. The savages learned to demand "two fathoms while and one of black" wampum for a beaver. Cloth was also a commodity much in demand among the Indiana, one fathom of which was counted worth two beavers. It is suggested that the height of the Indian trading was taken tie the measure of a fathom, as the Dutch clerk complained that " the Indians always take the largest still tallest amongst them to trade with tie." Liquor was also a valuable article of trade, nail was in general use among the whites. It was generally made in domestic stills., until the indiscriminate manufacture wee restrained by law. In 1678 the Dutch granted a general exemption from all taxes on wine, beer, or distilled liquors for a period of three years, but the return of the English brought about an entire prohibition of the sale " of strong drinks or liquors to the Indians by retayle, or a less quantity than two gallons sit a tyme," and a similar interdiction against the distilling of grain by any of the inhabitants.
    Beside his formal proclamation on assuming the government and temporarily providing for the orderly disebarge of the public business, the new governor found no immediate opportunity to give attention to these distant settlements, but Ire announced that in the following spring he would visit the Delaware for the more complete regulation of ire affairs. Accordingly, in May, 1675, be

* In bit Hi•-turn of Delaware County, Dr. Smith makes ilk following note on trop•• 108 The Gilder or Guilder, as used in commercial and other transactions on the Delaware about this period, limp by some writers been estimated tit about •lo cents of our money, the Almost value of the Dutch ruin of thar name- This is a serious mistake, lost must lead the reader to very incorrect conclusions in respect to the pecuniary condition of the early set- tlers on the river. The value of the Gilder during the Luke of York's government was sixpence currency. This fact in established by• the judgment of the Upland Court, in the ease of Thumps Kerby „s. Gilbert Wheeler, • wherein the def, is allotted and ordered to 1:n.', for 7n days work, at 30 sty vers per day, ' Y •time of fewer pounds seven shillings and sixpence." Sec Rec. Upland Court, 1b1- See also p- 164 where Łn is merle equal to 200 gilders. Samuel Smith, in his History of New Jersey, .published in 1741, sty.: 'Eight white wampum, or four black, passed at thus time [1673] as a skiver, twenty made what they called a ;wilder, which wear about sixp nce prement currency" (p- 7e). Proud, in hi= History of Pennsylvania i. p. 1:11, in u note rocs : " Six bead, ref wampum were formerly valued tit a sliver ; twenty stivers make what they Ball a guilder, which tow about sixpence "Mary, or fourspence sterling-""

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came across the country with an imposing escort. He crossed the Delaware at the falls, where he was met by Captain Cantwell, and thence proceeded to Newcastle, the seat of government. Here on the 13th and 14th of the month he held a special court, the business of which was legislative in character rather than judicial. His journey had doubtless brought to hill attention the crest need of better roads, and it wag accordingly ordered " that highways should be cleared from place to place, within the precincts of this government;" and that a ferryboat be maintained and kept at the. falls at the west side of this river; a horse and a man to pay for passage, two guilders, a man without a horse, ten otivers. "The "established church" had been formally trans- furred to New York by in order of the court of assizes in 1672 but there had apparently been no effort. made to plant it on the Delaware hitherto.At this time, however, the inferior court was ordered to regulate the affairs of the church at Newcastle, the " place for meeting at Crane Hoeck" was to he continued; " the church at Tinnecum Island" was to serve for " Upland and parts adjacent;" " and whereas there is no church or place of meeting higher up the river than the said island, for the greater ease of the inhabitants there, it's ordered that the magistrates of Upland do cause a church or place of meeting for that purpose to be built at Wickagkoo, the which to he for the inhabitants of Passayunk and so upwards. The said court being empowered to raise a tax for its building and to agree upon a competence for their minister, of all of which they are to give an account to the next general court, and they to the governor, for his approbation." This, with the regulation of the liquor traffic already mentioned, constituted the principal business of the court. On the following day, however, certain matters which lead escaped the attention of the court were brought to the notice of the governor, and he therefore, left instructions in a letter addressed " To the three several courts of Delaware river or bay." In this communication tie *eve directions in regard to keeping the records, preserving a copy of patents and the surveying of lands. lie also called attention to the condition of the " corn mills," urged the courts to ex. amine the same and keep them in " due repair," and to Imild others ,in convenient and fitting places where none are."
    There is creme question as to what courts the governor referred to in his letter to the " three several court." In 1668 Governor Lovelace "had begun to make a regulation for the due administration of justice," but this evidently bad not been completed when the appearance of the Dutch put an end to his administration. Before this there appear to have been two courts, the jurisdiction of which seems to have extended, the one over the upper part and the other over the lower part of the river. The places in which these courts held their sessions is uncertain, but it is believed that the magistrates of the former, occasionally at least, sat at Upland. The other sat at Newcastle as early as 16 i4, and quite likely earlier, as well as at other places below it. It is probable

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that Governor Andros, at the time of his visit, merely appointed "some magistrates" pursuant to the regulation of Lovelace, and " made some rules for their proceedings, the year ensuing, or till further orders." But on the 25th of September, 1676, he sent more explicit instructions, in which it was directed that the " Duke's Law's" °' he likewise in force and practice in this river got precincts, except the constable's courts, county rates slid some other thin; peculiar to Long island; that three courts lie held, one at Newcastle, one above at Upland, another below at Whorckill," the one at Newcastle to he held monthly, and the others quarterly; recommended "the composure, or referring to arbitration of as many matters, particularly under the value of .Łu, as may properly he determined in that way ;" and ordered " that any person I"; ring land make application to the court in whose hounds it is, who are required to sit once a month, or oftener, if there be occasion, to give order therein, certify to the governor for any land not taken up and improved, fit proportions, lint excecdiug 50 acres per heal, unless upon extraordinary occasion-s, when they see good cause for it, which certificate to be a sufficient authority or warrant for the surveyor to surrey the same, and with the surveyor's return to be seat to New York for the governors approbation," At the same time the command of the military was transferred to Captain Collier, justices were appointed far the courts lit Newcastle and at Upland, and Ephraim Herman appointed "clarke" of both courts.
    The restoration of the English was followed by a marked immigration which aeon made its invigorating influence felt in the colonies on both sides of the Delaware, In May, Li75, the ship "Joseph awl Mary" arrived at Salem with a number of passengers destined for the New Jersey settlements. In July the "Grilfon" came, bringing John Fenwick and family, the Wades, Richard Noble, and others subsequently prominent in the river settlements, These also landed in New Jersey and formed a settlement near the site of Salem, Soon after, however, Robert Wale and others of the Society of Friends removed to Upland, the first of that sect which was soon to lay the foundations of a great commonwealth. In the latter part of 1675, William Edmundson, an eminent preacher of this sect, visited this little company of Quakers, and inaugurated a meeting at the house of Wade. The arrival Woo other vessel in the river is mentioned until 1657, when the ship " Kent," with about two hundred and thirty souls on board, arrived at Newcastle and soon afterward landed at Raccoon creek in New .Jersey. It was this company that a little later in the same year founded Burlington, the lots and streets of which were laid out by Richard Noble, In October the ship •' Martha," with our hundred and fourteen emigrants, and in November the' Willing Mind," with sixty or seventy passengers, arrived. All these were destined for the settlements east of the river and first landed there, though many subsequently removed to the other side.
    It is this year which marks the advent of the first permanent sealer within

Chapter 2 Cont.

History of Bucks County By J.H. Battle  Table of Contents