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The limits which now form the boundaries of Backs county. The advanced settlements had reached Tacony creek scene three years before, and in 1675 the fast settlement was made at Byberry, a point then far in advance of the wait, body of the settlements. It was off the travelled trail leading from the falls to Upland, and was thus undiscovered by Edmundson when he visited the region this year. He reached the falls "about nine in the morning" and travelled until probably noon without meeting a sign of settlement. While refreshing himself with food brought for the purpose, and " baiting" his horse, "a Finland man, well horsed, who could speak English," came up and sabsequently conducted the traveller to his home, which Edmundson records " was as far as we could go that day." This was probably in the vicinity of the Tacony settlement. From his host the preacher received an "account of several Friends," doubtless Robert Wade and his associates at Upland, whom he visited early on the following day.
    The country beyond the Poquessing was by no means unknown at this time. For a quarter-century the trader and trapper had plied their vocations here, and even the land hunter had set his mark upon it years before. In the general distribution of plunder after the conquest of the Dutch on the Delaware, Sir Robert Carre granted to Captains Hyde and Morley, subordinate officers in the expedition, " all that tract of land known or called by the Indian name of Chipussen, and now called by the name of the manour of Grimstead, situtated near the head of the said river of Delaware in America." It is doubtful if Carre was authorized to make the grant, and it is pretty certain that Governor Nicolls did not confirm it, for, a short time afterward, he granted land on the "south side of Delaware river, near the falls, known by the Indian name of Chiepiessing," to Matthias Nicholls.* On the 26th of January, 1672, this grant was transferred to John Berry and Company. No time was fixed in the original grant for settlement, and none had been made at the time of the transfer; but in consideration of the distance of the tract from other plantations, the unusual delay of settlement which had occurred was overlooked, and the transfer confirmed on condition that the tract should be seated within three years. A tract of land " bounded on the north by a creek called by the Indiana Quiackitcunk, at Nicambanock creek, and south by north side of Pemecocka creek, passing over Passaquessing creek," had also been patented by Richard Gorsuch. He subsequently assigned his patent to Governor Lovelace, who in 1672 directed Cantwell to cause the tract "to he seated and cleared by some tenant for my best advantage." The sudden change in the government is the following year probably put an end to all those arrangements, and it was not until 1677 that others ventured to select land thus far up the river. I

*There tracts are supposed to include what was afterward known as the manor of Pennsbury. The latter was laid out on the tract called Chipassen or Sepeasin by the Indians.

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October, 1675, however, a purchase was made by order of Governor Andrew from " the true sachems and lawful Indian proprietors of all that tract of land on west side of Delaware, beginning at a creek next to the Cold spring, what above Mattinicum Island, about eight or nine miles below the falls, and as far above said falls as the other is below them, or further that way, as may be agreed upon, to some remarkable place, for the more certain bounds; as also all the islands in Delaware river, within the above limits, below and the falls (except only one island, called Peter Alricks's Island), together with all lands, soils, woods, etc.. without any reservation of herbage, or trees, or anything growing or being thereon."
    The object of this particular purchase is not clearly indicated, but it is probable that the governor wished to secure an undisputed title to the region through which the "King's Path" passed. The deed appears to have been conveyed and a partial payment made, but in April, 1677, there were still due on the purchase consideration "five guns, thirty hoes, and one anker of rum," which the governor directed to be paid forthwith. At the same time he ordered "the remaining part of the land betwixt the old and new purchase, as also the island called Peter Alricks,* or so much as is not already purchased (and the Indians will part with), to be bought of them, for which Captain Israel Helm is to inquire for the owners, and if they will be reasonable, to bring them to the commander and court at New Castle, for agreeing, concluding, and confirming a bargain thereof." In the following August, Andros directed a letter to the court at Upland, in which he wrote, "These are to desire and authorize you to treat with the Indian proprietors for the purchase of a small tract of land which I am informed is not yet purchased, and is about half a Dutch or two English miles along the river side, betwixt the land god the late purchase up to the falls, which done. I shall forthwith take care for settling those parts." The court record contains no note of any measure for carrying out these instructions, and the evidence seems to show that this court was quite as neglectful of the governor's instructions as the court at Newcastle had been.
    There seems to have been no present disposition on the part of the colonists to go so far in advance of the main body of the settlements as to seek land in those parts," and it may be that the court found the expense attendant upon such negotiations an additional reason to defer the matter. But the tendency of the settlements was to expand upward slow; the trend of the river, still at its September session the Upland court made its first grant of lands to Ephraim Herman and Pelle Rambo, to each three hundred acres "up the river between Pemipkan creek and Poequessin creek." This was followed by other grants to

* This inland was situated in the Delaware, below the mouth of Mill creek, at and near the Pennsylvania bank. It was irritated is 1667 to Peter Alricks by Govenor Nicoll, but is now joined to the mainland and forms part of the flats below Bristol.

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various persons for lands on the Schuylkill, " at the place called Wiessahitkonk" (Wissahickon) "just above Tacony Patent," just above Poequessink creek," " in Nishammenies creek," and other places less advanced, the grantees numbering nineteen and the grants appregating twenty-two hundred acres. A similar activity was manifested in the following session of the court in November, the grantees numbering seventeen and the grants aggregating twenty-five hundred and fifty acres. The lands in question were generally situated in the vicinity of the Schuylkill, though one petition indefinitely described the land as lying "up the river," and another sought an addition to the grant previously made of land "just above Poequessink creek." Of the grants thus made in 1677 a few are clearly indicated as falling within the present limits of Bucks county. These were three hundred acres each to Jan Claassen and Paerde Cooper,* "In nishammenies Creeke next unto ye Land of James Sanderling, tavoo myll up on ye East syde of the s° Creeke;" one hundred acres to Thomas Jacobs" next unto y° Land of Jan Claassen In Nishammenics Creeke;" one hundred acres to William Jeacocx "next unto ye Land of Thomas Jacobs one hundred acres of land "a peece" to Lace Cock and James Sanderling "Just above pocquessink Creeke," to which the court, in November, added two hundred acres more.
    Public lands were granted to settlers, "not exceeding fifty acres per head unless upon extraordinary occasions where they see good cause for it, "subject to the stipulation that the petitioner seat and improve the land "according to his boner the governor's orders and regulations." These required the payment of two shillings and sixpence per cue hundred acres as an acknowledgment; that the grantee at his own cost cause a survey and draft thereof to be made and returned within one year after purchase; and "if the purchasers shall not within three years after the survey, plant, seat, or inhabit upon said purchase they shall forfeit their right, title, and interest therein." In addition each acre was subject to the payment of a quit-rent of one and a fifth schepel+ of wheat annually. In 1675 the governor sought to encourage settlement by remitting this rent "for the first three years of all now hands," but in October, 1678, thus action "having proved inconvenient by many taking up land and not seating at all, "was recalled, and "for the future all such as have or shall take up land" were required to pay their quit-rents from their taking up such land.
    In 1677, Walter Wharton was appointed surveyor on the Delaware river and bay. He was allowed to charge "for surveying every fifty acres and under, ten shillings; above fifty and under one hundred, twenty shillings;


* Classen was, a resident on his tract in 1684, when Penn issued a patent "Jan Classen par Cooper" for five hundred and twenty acres, three hundred of which was on old rent and two hundred on sew.
+A schepel contained three pecks English measure, and was rated at this thaw at five guilders.

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above one hundred and under one hundred and fifty, thirty shilling:, and so proportionally, and no more." In return he was to give the persons whom he served a survey plar and card, and make due returns to the office of records; " said persons to find boat or horse, or allow it and other travelling fitting charges." All lands were "to be laid out from the water side, if it may be, or so as not to hinder any, or be prejudicial to adjacent lands, and to lay out fitting highways or convenient road."
    It is difficult to determine how many of those receiving grant, of land east of the Poquessing creek became residents upon them, or at what time. It appears from the language of the record that Sandelands had previously obtained land "two miles up on the east side" of the Neshaminy, but it is certain that he never had his residence there. He was a Scotchman, and probably made his first visit to the Delaware in the character of a soldier in the service of the Duke of York. While still in this service he obtained a patent for land at Upland, and being discharged in 1669 took up his residence here, soon afterward forming a matrimonial alliance with a Swedish woman. He was a man of shrewd business talent, well versed in the river traffic, and dealt extensively in public lands. He is early mentioned as an attorney before the Upland court, was subsequently a member of Markham's council, and was at this time the leading, man of the district. The other grantees were Swedes, and but little is known of them. They were probably born on the Delaware, were "freemen" of the average character, and doubtless became the first white residents of the region now known as Bucks county.
    In November of this year, a more important movement toward the settle meat of this section took the form of a petition to the court in which it was represented that the petitioners, "being all inhabitants and for the most part born and brought up in this river and parts, have a great inclination as well for the strength of the river and ports as for the convenience of travellers and otherways, to settle together in a town at the west side or this river just below the falls." They therefore requested the court "to move the case to his honor the governor, that they, the petitioners, may have each of them in lots laid out one hundred acres of land with a fit proportion of marsh, as also that a fit place for a town may be laid out in the most convenient place thereabouts with such privileges and liberties for their encouragement as shall be thought fit, and that the same may he confirmed unto them by his honor the governor and the petitioners will forthwith seat accordingly." The court graciously received this petition and promised to "move and intreat the governor in their behalf," but there is no further record of the matter. The project failed: but whether because the two miles "betwixt the land and the late purchase up to the falls" was not yet secured, or because the governor observed in it more evidence of a shrewd speculation than desire for an actual settlement, cannot be determined.

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Among the petitioners* were the lending men of the Upland district, residing in Upland, Moyamensing, and vicinity. Two were members of the court and another member was represented by a near relative. The names of several others are frequently mentioned in the court records in connection with landgrants in various parts of the district, and the indications are such that. few of the petitioners are believed to have possessed the qualifications usually found in those seeking a home on the verge of civilization.
    In the following session of the court, hold in March, 1678, some twenty-one hundred acres were granted to different individuals, of which two hundred acres only are clearly known to he east of the Poquessing. In the record Henry Hastings is associated with "James Sanderling" in a request for two hundred acres each, without further description. In November of this year the surveyor makes return of "a parcel of land, called Hastings Hope," laid out for Henry Hastings. It was situated "on the west bank of the Delaware river a mile above Poquessing creek," and was bounded on the west by the tract granted to "Jeames Sanderlands and Lawrence Cock." The surveyor at the same time also makes return of "a tract of land called Poat-quessink" for the last-named persons, which is situated "on the west of Delaware river beginning at a corner marked white oak standing at the northeast side of the mouth of Poat-quessink creek;" etc. Hastings was an old resident of Upland and probably secured the land as a business speculation, and it is by no means certain that he ever made any effort to comply with the letter of the law in regard to seating and improving it. In the latter part of 1679 he sold his tract to John Test, a London merchant, who came to Upland as early as 1677 and engaged in the mercantile business. He was identified with that place until after the advent of Penn.
    The court record for April, 1678, is not complete, four pages of the original having, been lost, and it is possible that in this way grants were made which have escaped notice. But as the record now exists only a few grants were made prior to the November session, and these, as has been noted, brought no addition to the population of what is now Bucks county. At the November session, however, a grant was made to Duncan Williamson for one hundred acres "on the lower side of Nieshambenies creek, fifty acres thereof at the river side and the other fifty up in the woods." Williamson, better known in the records as "Dunk Williams," was associated with nine others, in 1667, in securing a patent from Governor Nicolls for a hundred acres ° known by the

* The original record of the names is as follows : Laurens Cock, Israell helm, moens Cork, andries Benckson, Ephraim herman, Casperes Herman, Swen Lom, John dalbo, Jasper fiske, Hans moensen, fredrick Roomey, Erik mulk gunner Rambo, Tho: Harwood, Erik Cock, Jan Cock, Peter Jockum, Peter Cock, Junior, Jan Stille, Jonas neelsen, ocle Swenson James Sanderling, mathias mathiass debos and william orian.

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name of Passyunk," and his circumstances had doubtless so far improved by this time as to encourage him to venture on a similar purchase alone. He probably settled upon his land at once, as he appears before the court in the following, March asking liberty "to take four acres of marsh backward of his Land att nieschambenies Creeke in ye woods above ye kings path."
Other grants followed in this term of the court, but neither the names of the grantees nor the description of the lands warrant the belief that any of them were located in this region. In March, 1679 however, the record notes two cases in which "William Clark of Neishambenies Creeke," is plaintiff. but as he withdrew one and was non-suited in the other, "haveing Enterred nee declarat upon ye def Rquest." they afford no indication as to the length of his residence here. He came to New Jersey in the "Willing Mind," in the latter part of 1677, and some time in the following year came to the Neshaminy. Clark still held this property in 1680, when the court granted him permission " to cause a resurvey to he made of his two hundred acres." He died here in 1683, and his widow, Ann Clark, appears as landowner on Holmes's map.
    Of lands east of the Poquessing the record of the Upland court exhibits only one grant made in 1679, two hundred and sixty acres below the Nesbaminy, to Thomas Fairman, which was not occupied by the grantee. In November, the "Poquessing patent" changed hands, Sandelands and Cock selling the tract to Messrs. Walter, John, and Francis Forrest, but this region gained no addition to its population by the change. But, notwithstanding the discouraging character or this record, this year marks the beginning of a steady immigration that was scarcely checked until the public lands were generally in the hands of private owners. It was estimated at the beginning of this year that some eight hundred colonists had been forwarded through Penn's agency to New Jersey. Some of the earlier, and many of the later arrivals were attracted to the "west side" of the river, and in July, 1679, Governor Andros directed Philip Pocock, the surveyor for Newcastle, to lay out lauds below the falls, on the west aide of the Delaware, "for several persons lately come out of England, destitute of land." These persons appear to hare applied directly to the governor for grants, and received them without the intervention of the court. In accordance with regulations then in force, the lands were laid out with a river frontage in proportion to the amount of the land purchased, and extending inland for quantity. Of these plats the nearest to the falls was a tract of 478 acres, with an island "lying over against it," granted to John Wood. Adjoining it on the lower side was a tract or 205 acres granted to Daniel Brindson, and others in consecutive order down the river were tracts of 213 acres to John Acreman, 218 acres to Richard Ridgeway, 173 acres to William Biles, 121 acres to Joshua Boare, 177 acres to Richard Lucas, and 180 acres with a small island to Gilbert Wheeler. All these settlers were from

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New Jersey.* Joshua Boare had come from Darbyshire in the "Martha,"and Daniel Brindson in the "Willing Mind," two years before Wood had come to New Jersey in the previous year in the "Shield," and the others came in June and September of this year.
    At the March session of the Upland court in 1680, Richard Noble appeared and presented his commission from Governor Andros as "surveyor of Upland in Delaware river and dependencies within the jurisdiction of that court." This probably marks his first identification with the "west side" community, but it was a year or two before he removed, "up the river." Another accession to take community, and to tile growing settlement at the falls in this year, was George Brown. In May he was appointed one of the justices of the Upland court, but did not attend until the October session. In the March session of 1681 he was again absent, and at the opening of tile succceding session in June, in company with another delinquent justice, he was "fyned for not attending ye Court to supply their places Each 10 pounds according to ye Lawe." This was probably remitted, however, when he appeared on the same day and "sate in Co", being hindered to come sooner for want of a passage over ye Creeke."
    Noble appears to have been busily employed the whole year, but there is no record of his work in the Bucks county region, save in the case of a plat made in August for Ephraim Herman and Lawrence Cock. The governor's warrant, dated June 1, 1680 grants "a tract of land called Hataorockon,+

*In the Register of Arrivals," to he found in the Appendix, is a concise account of these persons. Among others who arrived in 1677, and eventually came to this county, was Jean Pursloir or Purslone. His name appears nowhere as a landowner, and nothing, more than is, here noted it known of him. It it stated that at this time grants were also made to Thomas Sebeley for 105 acres, and to Robert Scoley for 206 acres: that a Samuel Bliss claimed the tract of land covering the site of Bristol, and extending to the confluence of Mill creek and the Delaware; that an unknown settler had planted his home near the mouth of Scull creek, and that "West Kickles" lived on the north side of Scull's creek, near its mouth. The present writer has not been able to find trace of any of these persons in the records, but it may have been that they maintained a temporary residence here with or without a warrant, and that subsequently their lands were declared vacant and granted to others. In 1682, Robert Schooley" (probably the individuals called Scoley above) was appointed constable in the "Yorkshire tenth" in New Jersey.
+The editor of the published records of the Upload court calls attention to this grant as follows: An examination of the records affords no other proof than that presented in the text, of the grant to the partial named. " "Hataorackan," so variously spelt in the original, may be a corruption of the proper Indian title "Hackazackan," which is the nearest approach to it of any of the numerous Indian names set down by Lindstrom (M 5. Map), and by which be designated the region which was afterwards known as Pennsbury Manor. As the tract was in the vicinity of the present Bristol, and the two extreme points of the survey given, I find that the general bearing thus obtained, at well as the direction of the Hataorackan creek, correspond pretty accurately with the Coast Survey, as the course of

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situated and being on the west side of Delaware river, and on the southeast side of Hataorachan creek," and containing five hundred and fifty-two acres of "fast land and fifty acres of swamp." In thus year also, Samuel Clift, a recent emigrant to New Jersey, obtained from Andros a grant for two hundred and sixty-two acres, covering the site of Bristol, and soon after became a resident here. In June, the wife of Robert Lucas arrived with eight children, in the "Content," and was soon domiciled upon his lands near the falls. In the same ship came William and Samuel Darke. The former apparently came on a tour of observation, and did not purchase land for several years. Samuel brought two servants, and purchased land in the falls settlement, probably in this year. About the same time, but in the "Owner's Advice," came Lionel Brittain, with his wife and child. He was a blacksmith, and emigrated from Olney, in the county of Bucks, England. He did not purchase land until June, 1681, when the court granted him two hundred acres in the falls settlement. Richard Noble also became a resident of this region in 1681, the court granting him in March two hundred acres of land, which he located near Clift's purchase. At the same session William Biles was granted an additional tract of one hundred and fifty acres, which was subsequently increased to three hundred, possibly by the purchase of Robert Hoskin's estate, the care of which was intrusted to him by the heirs in England. This probably includes all the additions to the upper settlement in 1681, but events were transpiring across the sea which were destined to quicken the development of this region, and in a few years to plant on the Delaware the broad foundation of a great commonwealth. The first comers of this new immigration movement did, indeed, reach the Delaware in the latter part of this year, but it was not until 1682 that any of these adventurers found their way to the upper settlement.
    The civilization which was thus slowly extending up the river carried with it the social institutions of the lower reaches of the river. Until 1678 the limits of Upland county were not strictly defined, but at this time its western boundary was fixed at "ye north syde of oele franseus Creeke, otherways Called Steenkill." This stream is now known as Quarryville creek, and crosses the Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore railroad three and three-quarters.
Scott's creek-which ran through the Manor-and the shore between that stream and Newhold's island, as them laid down. With no other portion of the river wilt the bearings of the survey so well accord. The fact that the grant was made but a few months before the duke's possession ceased, and perhaps remained unseated, may account for the absence of any further allusion to it in the records, and for its probable absorption into the manor of Pennsbury.
    In the session of March, 1681, these purchasers and a Peter Van Brug are each granted twenty-five acres of marsh or meadow ground "to their land granted them at Taorackan by the governor," which seems to indicate that another grant in this region had been mdde to Van Brug.

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miles below Naaman's creek. The latter stream, however, was subsequently recognized as the boundary by the court, and remained unchanged until long after the advent of Penn. Its upper limits were undefined and practically extended to the farthest plantations. The seat of justice remained at Upland until 1680, when "in Regard that upland Creek, where ye Court hitherto has sate is att ye lower End of ye County; The Court therefore for ye most Ease of ye People have thought fitt for ye future to sitt & meet art ye Towne of Kingsesse in ye Schuylkills."For a short time the court held its sessions in Neels Laerson's inn, but, wearying of this inconvenience, it ordered the "house of defence" fitted up for its use by the militia force of the county, and here conducted its business until its removal to a more central position farther up the river.
    The government bore lightly upon the people. There was at first no regular provision for meeting the public expenses, and the justices' only compensation for their services was the two shillings and sixpence allowed on each judgment rendered. This state of affairs compelled them to call upon the governor to "prescribe a way and order how the charges of this court when they sit may found," and to authorize them "so that the old debts of the court together with the debts since your honor's government may also he satisfied."* It is probable that the governor suggested a poll-tax to meet this emergency, as the court November, 1677, ordered and impowered" the sheriff to receive and collect the sum of twenty-six guilders from every tithable in a list of a hundred thirty-six furnished him. It was provided, however, that payment should be made in wheat at five guilders per scheple, rye or barley at four guilders, Indian corn at three, tobacco at eight stivers per pound, pork at eight and bacon at sixteen, "or else in wampum or skins at price current." A similar tax was subsequently resorted to, but as no part of it was available for the payment of the justices, they appear to have been regularly " in great want of some means to pay and defray their necessary charges of meat and drink" while in attendance upon the sessions of the court.
    In addition to the regulation of all public affairs of the county, the care of the churches and the adjudication of matters in equity, as well as criminal and civil cases, were devolved upon this court. In criminal cases its powers corresponded nearly to those of the present court of quarter sessions, and in civil cases not involving values to exceed twenty pounds its judgment was final, but otherwise an appeal could be taken to the court of assizes. The privilege of a trial by jury was accorded, the panel not to "exceed the number seven nor be

*In the same communication the court requested the governor "to confirm the order made at the last general court here about the wolves' heads." The bounty thus offered for the destruction of these predatory animals amounted to a considerable sum in the accounts of the court, forty guilders being paid for each head.

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under six, unless in special cases upon lire and death the justices see fit to appoint twelve," a majority of whom, save in capital cases, were competent to render a verdict. The punishment inflicted by this court in criminal cases, in the absence of a jail, consisted of a fine, though in one case the record appears to indicate that one prisoner was publicly whipped by Indians employed for the purpose.The executive officers of the court were constables and overseen and viewers of fences and highways. In 1680 two of the latter sufficed for the county, and probably cue of the other officers, but in October of that year it was found "necessary for the due preserving of the peace that one other con. stable more be made and authorized to officiate between the Schuylkill and Neshaminy creek," and Mr. Erik Cock was accordingly inducted into the office. In the following year, however, William Biles was appointed to "officiate" at the falls, and the first record of Isis official action is his lodgment of information against Gilbert Wheeler "for selling of strong liquors by retail to the Indians contrary to the law and the forewarning of the said constable, which said information was likewise by Justice George Brown averred to be truth." The court accordingly fined Wheeler the sum of four pounds with the costs.
    Public improvements were limited to the construction of highways. Some thing had been done in this direction before the restoration of the English, but the increasing settlements created fresh demands for additional facilities for communication, and in November, 1678, the court ordered "that every person should within the space o£ two months, as far as his land reaches, make good and passable ways, front neighbor to neighbor with bridges where it needs, to the and that neighbors on occasion may come together. Those neglecting to forfeit twenty-five gilders." Again, in 1681, the court, sin the 14th of June, "authorized and appointed William Biles to be surveyor and overseer of the highways from the falls to Poquessing creek; he to take care that the said highways be made good and passable, with bridges over all miry amp dirty places, between this and the next court, and all the inhabitants living within the compass aforesaid to he. ready to do and complete the said way upon due warning given by the said overseer, the unwilling to be fined according to former order and practice." It is creditable to the court that its records hear evidence that this penalty was enforced. The character of the roads thus required is not more explicitly defined in the records, but an extract from the Newcastle records indicates what was then required: "The way to be made clear of standing and lying trees at least ten feet broad, all stumps and shrubs to be close cut to the ground; the trees marked yearly on both sides." with sufficient bridges, etc.
    There is little upon which to base any estimate of the social progress of the county at this time, and especially so of that part cast of the Poquessing creek, but there is evidence which indicates the presence of the Swedish schoolmaster even among the most advanced settlements, and a disposition on

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part of the pioneers to avail themselves of his services. The case in point, however, unfortunately exhibits an unwillingness to pay for each service, and the worthy pedagogue was obliged to seek his remuneration through the court. It appears that in 1677 Duncan Williamson contracted with Edmund Draufton to "Teach Donkes Children to Read in ye bybell, and if hee could doe its in a yeare or a half yeare or a quart: then hee was to have 200 gilders." It does not appear what defence Williamson set up, but the court gave judgement against him for the sum claimed and the costs. It is not clear that Draufton was a regular schoolmaster, and it is not probable that he had charge of a school, but that he was of that class of teachers who went from house to house Had gave elementary instruction to the children of the different families. The location of this transaction was undoubtedly at Passyunk, and it may be that Williamson's removal at this time to the Neshaminy suggested an attempt -in his part to evade the payment of the account. The community east of the Poquessing was not yet able to support a place of worship in its midst. Those who preferred the established church were obliged to resort to Wieaco, where a log fort had been fitted up an a place of worship in 1677 for the Swedish congregation, over which the Reverend Jacob Fabritius presided. The falls settlement was generally composed of members of the Society of Friends. Their church business was conducted at Burlington, and they often went there to attend religious service, but they doubtless also had services in their private houses until a regular meeting was established some two years later.
    Of the general character of the country, and the prosperity of the inbabitants, such glowing accounts were sent to England by emigrants that suspicion was aroused that they were greatly exaggerated in the interest of speculation, but Claypoole, who made a large purchase of land from Penn, and had carefully investigated the facts,* writes to a friend under date of December 29, 1681: "As to thy judgment of the letters from New Jersey, that they are to decoy people. that is known to be otherwise, and that the chiefest of them came from very honest, faithful friends," It is in answer to similar doubts that Mahlon Stacy, the founder of Trenton, New Jersey, writes "From the falls of the Delaware in West New Jersey, the 26th of 4th month, 1680," as follows:-
    But now a word or two of those strange reports you hear of us and me country; I affirm they Are not true, and fear they were spoke from a spirit of envy: It is a country that pro- ducts all things for the support and sustenance of man, in a plentiful manner; if it were not so, I should to ashamed of what I have before written: but I can stand, having truth on my side. against and before the face of all gainsayers and evil spies.: I have travelled through most of the places that are settled, and some that are not, and in every place I find the country very apt to answer the expectation of the diligent: I have seen orchards laden

* Annals of Pennsylvania by Samuel Hazard. 1850, P. 534

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with fruit to admiration, their very limbs torn to pieces with the weight, and most delicious to the taste, and lovely to behold; I have seen an apple tree, from a pippin kernel, yield a barrel of curious cyder; and peaches in such plenty, that some people took their carts a peach-gathering; I could not but smile at the conceit of it; They are very delicate fruit, and hung almost like our onions that are tied on ropes; I have seen and known this summer forty bushels of bold wheat of one bushel gown and many more such instances I could bring; which would be too tedious here to ; We have from the time called May until Michaelmas, a great store of very good wild fruits, as strawberries, cranberries, and hurtle berries, which are like our bilberries in England, but far sweeter; they tire very wholesome fruits. The cranberries, much like cherries for color and bigness, may he kept till fruit come in again; an excellent sauce is made of them for venison, turkeys, and other great fowl, and they are better to make tarts than either gooseberries or cherries; we have them brought to our houses by the Indians in great plenty. My brother has as many cherries this year as would have loaded several carts. It is my judgment by what I have observed, that fruit trees in this country destroy themselves by the very weight of their fruit. As far venison and fowls, we have great plenty. We have brought, home to our houses by the Indians, seven or eight fat bucks of a day; and sometimes put by as many; having no occasion for them; and fish in their season very plenteous: My cousin Revell and I, with some of my men, went last third month into the river to catch herrings; for at that rime they came in great shoals into the shallows; we had neither rod our net; but left a gap for the fish to go in at, and made a bush to lay in the gap to keep the fish in; and when that was done, we took two long birches and tied their tops together, and went about a stone’s cast above our said pinfold; then hauling these birches’ boughs down the stream, where we drove thousands before us, but so many got into our trap as it would hold, and then we began to haul them on shore as fast as three or four of us could, by two or three at a time; and after this manner, in half an hour, we could have filled a three-bushel sack of as good and large herrings as ever I saw; and as to beef and pork, here is great plenty of it, and cheap: and also good sheep. The common grass of this country feeds beef very fat; I have killed two this year, and therefore I have reasons to know it; besides I have seen this fall, in Burlington, killed eight or nine fat oxen and cows on a marker day, and all very fat. And though I speak of herrings only, best any should think we have little other sorts, we have plenty of most sorts of fish that ever I saw in England; besides several other sorts that are not known there; as rocks, catfish, shad, sheeps-head, sturgeons; and fowls plenty; as ducks, geese, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, and many other sorts that I cannot remember, and would be too tedious to mention. Indeed, the country, take it as a wilderness, is a brave country, though no place will please all. But some will be ready to say, he writes of conveniences, but not of inconveniences. In answer to those, I honestly declare, there is some barren land, as (I suppose) there is in most places of the world, and more wood than some would have upon their lands; neither will the country produce corn without labour, nor cattle be got without something to buy them, nor bread with idleness; else it would be a brave country indeed. And I question not but all then would give it a good word, for my part I like it, I never had the least thought of returning to England, except on the account of trade.*

*History of New Jersey, by Samuel Smith, second edition, 1877, pp. 111-113. In 1683 Thomas Rudyard refers to Pennsylvania and New Jersey as follows " They lie to near adjacent that they may be said, in a sense, to be but one country; and what’s said for one, in general may serve for all."

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    The trade of the river had frown to a considerable volume, and shipments of the products of the country were regularly exchanged for merchandise abroad. Under the dame date as the above letter Stacy wrote: "Burlington will be a place of trade quickly; for here is way for trade: I, with eight more. Last winter, bought a good kotch of fifty tones, freighted her out as our own charge, and sent her to Barbados, and so to sail to Saltertugas, to take in part of her lading in salt, and the rest in Barbados goods as she came back: which said voyage she both accomplished very well, and now rides before Burlington discharging her lading, and so to go to the West Indies again; and we intend to freight her out with our corn." Salt, sugar, molasses, rum, hardware, and even luxuries were imported by the merchants, which they readily exchanged for anything the farmer produced. There was little money in the country and none in general circulation. The law stipulated that legal fees should be paid in silver, beaver, wampum, or wheat, but officials made little difficulty in accepting whatever was offered at the lawful rate, and the courts did not hesitate in rendering judgments to adapt its conditions to the ability of the defeated party.* The home of the people, while still plain, exhibited the marks of thrift. The Swedes still retained their log homes, with doors low and wide and chimneys placed in the corner of the structure, but here and there a planked ceiling and a glass window served to mark the improvement in taste and circumstances. The dwellings of the English were generally framed structures covered with clapboards. A part of the materials was bought from the "old country" by many emigrants, but the clapboards were the product of the new land, either riven out by hand or sawed at the mills already erected in the New Jersey settlements. These were commonly put on green and subsequently shrunk, leaving openings a half inch wide. In the ease of the "best people" a liberal application of clay served to keep the wind away, but added rather to the comfort than to the beauty of the building. Dutch coins and measures were still used in the common expression of values, social customs bore the same stamp of conservation, and the mixed population, slowly progressive, viewed innovations as an infringement of their privileges.
    It was on such a foundation that William Penn was about to build his "divine experiment."

* In 1679 an account was sued before the Upland court, in which there was a charge for two ells of ribbon. The plaintiff had agreed to accept pumpkins in payment, but when these were demanded the defendant refused to deliver them at the waterside. The court rendered judgment for the plaintiff, twenty guilders to be paid in wheat and twenty-six in "pumpkins ater ye rate of sixteen gilders pr hundred."

History of Bucks County By J.H. Battle  Table of Contents