News, obituaries, birth, marriage and death notices, by date.
Items from The Altoona Tribune, Altoona, Pa.,
Thursday, June 14, 1877
MEETING OF THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE EQUAL RIGHTS LEAGUE.
Mr. William Nesbit of this city, President of the Pennsylvania State Equal Rights League, has called a meeting of the same at Erie on the third Tuesday, the 21st day of August, 1877. He publishes the following address in connection with the call:
Colored Men of Pennsylvania:
There has been no time since the organization of the League in which events have clustered more full of threatenings and dangers than the present, and the League again calls you to meet, consult and organize, that you may intelligently perform your whole duty. The moral sentiment of the country seems so stultified that although less than a decade has elapsed since our rights as citizens have been recognized, those who have always been our stern, unrelenting foes, those who forfeited every right because they tried to break up the Government, those dangerous men who have kept the country in commotion and turmoil for half a century, have succeeded in forcing the loyal and true to the rear, and traitors are now filling the places and wielding the power that of right belongs to the loyal friends of the Government. Conservatism in favor of caste proscription seems to be the rule, both North and South, and the general tendency is toward a re-opening and a re-settlement of the questions settled by the war. We are dwarfed in matters relating to our educational interests. The higher branches of the industries are a sealed book to us, and even where we have qualified workmen, able to compete with the best- qualified in spite of the prejudices of the people our color excludes us from honorable employment; and financially the outlook is to us especially discouraging.
Can we do anything to better our condition? Is it not our duty to try? Men of Pennsylvania, send your best men to represent you at Erie in the hope that good results will follow.
WILLIAM NESBIT, President, Altoona, Pa.
Altoona Tribune, Altoona, Pa., Thursday, June 14, 1877, page 1
OUR CHIP BASKET.
Bell's Mills has a public reading room.
Tramps steal the old hats and coats on the scare crows in cornfields.
There was a slight frost on Monday morning, but did no damage, except to tender vines.
John Yohn now blossoms in Castle McClure for assault and battery on Englehart Bickle.
The pardon of Thomas J. Williams of this county was refused by the Board at its recent session.
In a period of thirteen years, Mr. Isaac Peck has bought and built in this city thirty-nine houses.
The Methodists of Bell's Mills will hold a festival on Friday and Saturday evenings, June 15 and 16.
The stable of Mr. John Eberly at Waterside was destroyed by fire on the 3d inst. Loss $400, no insurance.
The annual commencement exercises of St. John's Convent Schools will take place Thursday evening, June 21st.
The Board of Pardons has recommended the pardon of John B. Zahm, of Johnstown, convicted of embezzlement.
John C. Trout of Antis township sold his farm the other day to Mr. Fred'k. W. Shaffer, of Logan township, for $14,500.
The interest of Thomas Collins, who has gone into bankruptcy, in the Philadelphia Times is to be sold by U. S. Marshal Hall.
To suit the times the price of admission to the Talmage lecture is put at 40 cents, and 20 cents for children. All should go and hear him.
The Mirror says Mr. Schumberg was born in 1853 and came to this country in 1822! He must have been brought over in a bag before his birth.
L. R. Boggs, Esq., Deputy Insurance Commissioner, has our thanks for a copy of the fourth Pennsylvania fire and marine insurance report for 1876.
Burglars relieved Mr. John Weller, residing on Fourth avenue, between Fifth and Sixth street, of a quantity of clothing and provisions on Friday night last.
John H. Westbrook has been appointed Fish Warden for Huntingdon county. Let him keep a sharp eye on pirates and hogs, and make it lively for them.
The School Board organized on Friday evening last by the re- election of B. F. Custer, Esq., President; Geo. W. Slayman, Secretary, and Theo. H. Wigton, Treasurer.
Keep your cellars locked. The provision thief is on his rounds again - several premises having been visited with success, the past week, by the midnight raider.
At the eighth re-union of the Ninth Penn'a. Veteran Vol. Cavalry in Mount Joy, on Thursday last, Samuel A. Ruhl, of this city, was chosen President of the association for the ensuing year.
We welcome again the visits of the Lancaster Daily New Era to our sanctum. It maintains the high character with which it first started out - able, vigorous and newsy in all its departments.
W. W. Jaggard, another son of Mr. C. Jaggard of this city, stands first in the graduating class at Dickinson College this year, takes the first honors of commencement, and is the valedictorian of his class.
"Rocks on which People Split," is the subject of the lecture to be delivered by the world-renowned lecturer, Rev. T. DeWitt Talmage, in the Second Presbyterian Church, on Monday evening next, at 8 o'clock.
The report of the State Commissioners of fisheries for 1876, is before us, for which we are indebted to the courtesy of the Commissioners. It contains much valuable information for those who take an interest in pisciculture.
The house of Mr. Ayers, in Jackson township, Huntingdon county, was destroyed on the night of the 5th inst. during a thunder storm. How the fire originated is not known. Only Mrs. Ayers and some small children were at home.
The post office name of Plattville, Cambria county, has been changed to Garman's Mills, and P. Garman appointed postmaster. C. P. Hatfield has been appointed postmaster at Alexandria, Huntingdon county, and H. T. Bloom, at Bloomington, Clearfield county.
A tramp from Westchester, Pa., had a leg broken by the cars coming together, on Saturday morning, between this city and Gallitzin. He was sitting on one platform with his feet on the other. He was taken to Gallitzin and then returned to the almshouse of this county.
The amateur dramatic company of this city dedicated Dr. J. P. Thompson's new hall in Williamsburg on Saturday evening, by the reproduction of "Sheridan's Spy, or the Heroine of Libby Prison." They had an overflowing house, were handsomely entertained, and highly pleased with Williamsburg hospitality.
W. W. Reninger, whose offence has been noticed in these columns, was convicted in the Cambria county Court last week, and sentenced to pay a fine of $100, costs of prosecution, and imprisonment of ten years at hard labor in the Western Penitentiary. Judge Dean read the beast a severe lecture.
Mr. Robert Clark, father of the boy James Clark, who had his leg taken off by jumping from a train while it was in motion, at the east end of Gallitzin tunnel, recently, has entered suit against the Pennsylvania Railroad Company for damages. The preliminary documents have been filed in the Prothonotary's office at Hollidaysburg.
It is said that W. Fisk Conrad, Esq., went for the scalp of our editorial brother Traugh in the Democratic Convention for supposed heresy. As this is an "off" year it affords a fine opportunity for the "unterrified" to settle their little personal "unpleasantness." Fisk went home with the scalp on his belt, and friend Traugh can go to the State Convention without authority.
John Holden in jumping off a freight train at Warrior Ridge station on Monday evening, had his foot so badly crushed that amputation was deemed necessary. He resided at Spruce Creek, and was charged with corn extract at the time of the accident.
The Republican Committee of Cambria county at their meeting on Saturday elected Wm. M. Jones and H. W. Storey, representative delegates, and John T. Harper Senatorial delegate to the State Convention, with instructions to vote for Hon. John A. Lemon for Auditor General.
DEMOCRATIC PRIMARIES. - The elections for delegates to the Democratic County Convention were hotly contested in this city, and in some instances marked with considerable bitterness. Likes and dislikes entered largely into the struggle, and Democrats voted for delegates, in many cases, upon their individual merits, without reference to the combatants or factions that desired "to rule the roast," not that they loved the Dively crowd more or the Greevy mad- caps less, but that they detested both. This class of Democrats were ripe for any measures that would most effectually squelch the pretensions of either. They are becoming quite disgusted with these factional fights, which they regard as evil and only evil, and calculated to breed schism in their ranks. In the Third Ward the fight was especially warm and bitter. In one instant blows were exchanged between a couple of the unwashed and unkempt and unterrified patriots, and in another, the pugnacious developments of a party were with difficulty restrained and bloodshed averted. But the Democrats are never happy unless somebody treads on "me coat tail" and the shillalah is brought into requisition. Whether the bad blood engendered and the Kilkenny cat fights inaugurated by the factions will result in an increase of Democratic cats in November is a mooted question.
HIGH SCHOOL COMMENCEMENT. - The annual commencement exercises of the Altoona High School were held in the Opera-house on Tuesday evening. The attendance was large, and the graduates acquitted themselves in a creditable and satisfactory manner. Miss Alice V. Shew delivered the salutatory, entitled "Life's Pivots," and Albert M. Leisenring the valedictory, "Revolutionary Rising." Both these productions were well prepared and delivered, and won for the speakers due praise and honor. A. M. Crosthwaite and G. M. Anderson delivered orations on "Fame" and " Peculiar People," respectively. These efforts were very creditable and interesting, and had an originality about them that was refreshing. Miss Jessie Custer read an essay on " Dawn." Her reading was excellent, and the subject matter quite entertaining. She was rewarded at its close with several bouquets. L. T. Hamilton discoursed on the "Grandeur of Nature." His subject was well chosen, and he discussed it in a very appropriate and handsome manner. The choir, under the leadership of Miss Lizzie Snyder, acquitted itself finely, and was frequently encored. Rev. M. N. Cornelius made the address to the graduating class at the close of the services. His remarks were very appropriate, and his words fitly chosen. The whole affair, from the beginning to the close, was eminently successful, reflecting credit upon the graduates and all connected with the High School.
RAILROAD NOTES. - A new schedule went into effect on the P. R. R. on Sunday.
Samuel A. Black, Esq., formerly Superintendent of the Middle Division of the P. R. R., has been appointed Superintendent of the Toledo, Wabash and Western road.
Five new passenger cars and one baggage car for the P., Ft. W. & C. Railway passed west on way passenger train last week.
The firemen on the ''shifters" in the yard have been taken off, and now the engineers do their own firing.
The new double track bridge of the Pennsylvania railroad, to be built across the Susquehanna river, at Rockville, is to cost $1,500,000.
Mr. Reed, Assistant Supervisor at Gallitzin, has been transferred to Hollidaysburg, and Mr. J. R. Davis, of Altoona, succeeds him at the former village.
The Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers is twenty-five years old, and has a fund of nearly $4,000,000. The monthly dues of members are $10. In case of sickness an engineer receives $25 a week, and at his death his family receives $3,000.
TERRIBLE HAIL STORM. - Mifflin county was visited by a terrific hail storm on Tuesday afternoon of last week. The force of the storm was expended from the M. & C. railroad in a breadth extending from the old camp-ground beyond Reedsville to Naginey's and thence across the Dry Valley, and towards Painter down to and below Soradoville on the S. & L. railroad. Between the camp-ground and Naginey's hail fell in heavy volumes and of large size, many of the stones being as large as hulled walnuts. Here it fell straight, cutting the limbs and leaves of the trees. In Dry Valley it proved more severe, and amounted to almost devastation. Hundreds of panes of glass were broken, corn cut beyond recovery, and the wheat heavily destroyed. In fact, it is said, some farmers have lost their entire crop. A son of Mr. H. C. Vanzant, who was plowing in a field when the storm came up, unhitched his team and made for shelter. The horses became unmanageable, and he was thrown and badly injured. Hail fell as large as a hen egg, and covered the ground for hours afterward. These facts we glean from the Lewistown Sentinel.
PERSONAL. - The wife of Mark Halfpenny, Esq., brother of Col. John Halfpenny of this county, died in Lewisburg, Pa., on the 2d inst. after a long illness, aged 55 years. Mrs. Halfpenny was a most estimable lady, whose hospitality we enjoyed in years gone by. Her demise is sincerely lamented by a large circle of friends and acquaintance by whom she was greatly beloved for her many virtues and excellent traits of character. Of the Halfpenny family proper, consisting of seven brothers and sisters, all are yet living - the eldest, William, being 80 years of age, and the youngest 60. They are a most courteous, kind and hospitable family, and command the respect of all with whom they come in contact.
Mayor Patterson of Harrisburg, escorted by Mr. D. Orr Alexander, paid the TRIBUNE office a brief visit on Thursday morning. He is a native of Blair county, and was returning from Williamsburg, his old stamping ground, whither he had been to renew the friendships of other years, both of relationship and otherwise. He is a very pleasant and affable gentleman, and Blair county esteems it a high honor to have one of her sons Mayor of the Capital City.
Mr. Conrad, of the McVeytown Journal, spent Friday with us on business and pleasure. He is quite free in his manners, social in his intercourse, and publishes a good local paper. Our city did not wear that brisk appearance that former visits led him to suppose it should; but "Cooney" should remember that we are not exempt from the general demoralization everywhere prevailing. Call again.
J. D. Hicks, Esq., paid us a pop visit on Saturday. J. D. has in him the "get up" of a good lawyer, and is bound to make his mark in the legal world. Besides he is an enterprising citizen of Tyrone.
Judge Orvis, of Bellefonte, is holding the Cambria county Court this week, Judge Dean being engaged in holding a special session in Huntingdon for the trial of Reese who killed his father-in-law, Dr. Shade.
Rev. N. A. McDonald who has been a Presbyterian Missionary in Siam for the past seventeen years, reached the home of his family in Mt. Union on Tuesday evening, the 5th inst. He has been home but once in that time, in 1869-70. From Yokohama, Japan, to Mt. Union the distance is 8,000 miles, and the trip occupied 25 days.
Mr. John W. Renner, formerly of this city, but now of the P., C. & St. L. Railway, with quarters in Pittsburgh, dropped in to see us on Monday. He is the same John of yore, and a steadfast patron of the TRIBUNE.
We are pained to announce the death of Mrs. Maud Domer, wife of D. D. Domer, Esq., of the Shamokin Times, which occurred on Sunday last. To a large circle of friends and acquaintance in this city this news will be received with sincere regret. We deeply sympathize with the bereaved husband in this sad affliction - wife and children all taken in a year.
FREAKISH AND PROLIFIC CAMBRIA. - The Cambria Herald vouches for these items: "Messrs. Barker & Son are the owners of a mare which gave birth on Wednesday morning to a colt which has three fore legs, two of which, from the shoulder, are well developed, and the left leg is well proportioned and fully developed to the knee joint. The colt is still living and is quite a curiosity. Squire Hads, of Chest Springs, is the owner of a ewe which gave birth recently to a fine healthy lamb which is compelled to go through the world without hearing, having no ears whatever. Mr. James McClosky, of Gallitzin, is the owner of a sheep from which he has sheared 36 3/4 pounds of wool in the past three years. 12 1/2 pounds were sheared this season. Captain Flanagan killed a blacksnake in Clearfield township the other day which measured over eleven feet in length and thirteen inches in circumference." For monstrosities and big "snaixs," Cambria has the lead so far this season. Well, the Cambrians are about one thousand feet above their surrounding neighbors, and it is well they have something else to boast of beside perpetual snow, frost and ice.
FLOUR STOLEN. - On Thursday night last some persons not very honest, or else driven to dishonesty by the pangs of hunger, burglariously entered the grist mill of Mr. Peter Good, near Eldorado, and purloined two sacks of flour. He effected an entrance by raising a back window, and appeared to be in no hurry, but deliberately emptied the contents of two paper bags into another bag and then took his departure nobody knows where. If the party were starving Mr. Good does not regret the loss, though he would rather the thief would have come to him in daylight, stating his case and received his charity; but if he was able to pay and stole out of "pure cussedness'' then he don't appreciate such midnight jokes.
CLAIMS FOR WAGES. - An important law, passed at the last session of the Legislature, provides for giving priority to claims for manual labor, on all trials of claims for wages in the courts of this Commonwealth. Heretofore, the claims of workingmen, after getting into court, by being placed at the end of the list of cases have often been so delayed from court to court that the plaintiff, from inability to be present when they have come up, has been compelled to compromise a just claim to get the matter settled. This new law gives all such claims priority and so far is a real benefit to the laboring man.
POCKET PICKED. - Mr. E. W. Blanchard, a clerk employed in the Transportation Department P. R. R., this city, while returning from Philadelphia on the Pittsburgh Express on Monday last, was relieved of a ten dollar bill by some member of the light fingered tribe. Mr. B. was asleep at the time and his loss was not discovered until he reached this city.
KNEE DISLOCATED. - Last Friday morning, a thirteen-year old son of Henry Herr, in getting out of a wagon at Stokes' planing mill, in First Ward, made a misstep, falling to the ground, and dislocating the knee joint of his right leg. Dr. Walker ministered to his injury, after which he was removed to his father's residence on Eighth avenue and Sixteenth street.
AFFAIRS ABOUT TIPTON. - On Friday morning last, while Mr. Abraham Beyer and son were hauling a load of fencing - post and rails - to a field for use, made a narrow escape from death or severe injury. [sic] Mr. Beyer was seated on the load about the middle of the wagon, his son, T. B. Beyer, was driving, and Earnest Warren, son of Capt. Warren, of Altoona, walking behind the wagon. In passing through the covered bridge at Beyer's mill, a section of the cross-stays between the plates fell down, striking the rear end of the wagon. One piece 4 x 6 inches square, and 17 feet long, struck within three feet of Mr. Beyer. Another piece struck young Warren about the head, knocking him down and inflicting severe injury. He was in a critical state, being part of the time delirious. Drs. Ewing and Piper ministered unto him, and at this writing (Tuesday) he is mending.
The recent rains are doing great good to the growing crops. Wheat will be short in straw, but is pretty well set. The fly is bad in some fields. Corn, oats and potatoes are growing finely, but the bugs are hard on the latter.
Monday morning a large buck crossed two of Mr. Abraham Beyer's fields, close in front of Charlottesville, in plain view of the whole town. Not liking the surroundings he made for his native mountains, clearing the middle fence, post and rail, handsomely. - B. A.
A MIRACULOUS ESCAPE. - Thomas Morrow, of this city, who has been running as Mail Agent between here and Pittsburgh, came very near being killed on Saturday. The circumstances as related by his son, are as follows: He left here in the morning and went to Pittsburgh attending to his duty, intending to return home on the Day Express, but instead got on the Fast Mail West. He says he can recollect nothing more until he found a physician over him washing the blood from a cut on the back of his left hand. He was picked up by the railroad agent at Birmingham Cut, bleeding and insensible. His tin box and clothing, which he kept with him while on duty, was found alongside of him. His injuries consisting of a cut across the back of his left hand, cut on the left temple and side of the head, and the back of his head bruised. His wounds were promptly attended to, and he was sent to his home on the Atlantic Express the same evening. How he got off the train is a mystery, as there was no one in the immediate neighborhood when the accident occurred, and as the train rushes along at the rate of forty miles an hour, it is a wonder that he wasn't instantly killed. - Globe.
A FURIOUS TEUTON. - A German named John Marksdollar residing on the Dry Gap Road, was escorted to the lock-up on Tuesday, bleeding, and looking somewhat the worse for the scrimmage in which he had been engaged. He had for some days been imbibing his favorite beverage, and under its exhilarating influence cleaned out his own premises, and attempted the same benign job for a neighbor named Dumm. Mrs. Dumm and children not liking this bad dollar, gave him a clean field, but a brother of Mrs. Dumm was not so easily intimidated. Marksdollar with a sledge unlifted, assumed a threatening attitude, and Mr. Dumm not liking that shape, whipped out a revolver and shot the excited Teuton in the fleshy part of the arm. He then ran out of the house, with Marksdollar in close pursuit, following him into the city, still clutching the sledge. Chief Randolph appeared on the scene, captured the ugly coin, and prevented further circulation.
A NEAT WAGON. - Mr. R. F. Myers received the other day from the manufacturers, Messrs. Showers & Scholl, Mifflintown, a very neat and handsome track wagon. The vehicle is made for trotting, and weighs only 83 pounds. It is about the airiest thing in the wagon line we have ever seen in this section. Mr. Myers has purchased several buggies from this firm recently, and pronounces their work excellent and durable.
SUPREME COURT DECISIONS. - The Supreme Court in session at Harrisburg rendered a large number of decisions on Monday. Among them we find the following on cases from this county:
Piper vs. Yeager. Judgment affirmed.
Lycoming Fire Insurance Company vs. Dickinson, et al. Judgment affirmed.
Pennsylvania Railroad Company vs. Gorsuch. Judgment of the 9th of January, 1877, reversed.
Wise vs. Rhodes. Judgment reversed, and a venire facias de novo awarded.
PERRY COUNTY CURIOSITIES. - The land of hoop-poles, buckwheat straw and pretty women is determined not to be surpassed in the race for the display of curiosities. John M. Foose of that county, has a four- legged chicken, which is now about a month old. W. Stambaugh has a duck with three legs, the extra one being behind the other two. Cambria is only ahead of Perry in big snakes.
MEETING OF REPUBLICAN COUNTY COMMITTEE. - As the Republican County Committee organization met on Saturday last at Hollidaysburg, W. Lee Woodcock, Esq., was elected temporary chairman and Gilbert Holliday temporary secretary. After a call of the districts a permanent organization was effected by the election of Milton Alexander, Esq., of Altoona, to the position of chairman, and James F. Milliken, Esq., of Hollidaysburg, as Secretary.
John W. Humes, Esq., of Altoona, was declared the nominee for Coroner.
No action was taken in regard to the repeal of the "Crawford County System" of making nominations - the Committee holding that it has no jurisdiction in the matter.
The attendance upon the session of the Committee was quite large, only four districts not being represented. The proceedings were harmonious, and the temper of the members present indicate an active and vigorous campaign.
A REVEREND GRANGER. - Rev. John A. DeMoyer, pastor of the M. E. Church, Hollidaysburg, has purchased the farm of Wilson Gearhart, on the North Branch of the Susquehanna, this side of Riverside, for the sum of $7,000. The farm was bought at Sheriff's sale by Peter Baldy, of Danville, who sold it to Mr. DeMoyer. If our reverend brother makes as good a granger as a preacher he will be a valuable addition to the tillers of the soil.
I want to be a granger
SUDDEN DEATH. - On Saturday morning the city was startled by a report that Mr. Joseph K. Ely, an old and well-known citizen, had fallen dead at his residence of heart disease. Subsequent inquiries revealed the fact that the unfortunate was not Mr. Ely, but a young man named Joseph Lingle, son of William Lingle, residing on Lexington avenue east of Ninth street. The young man had been ill for a year or more of heart disease. He was in the 18th year of his age.
DOGS RUNNING AT LARGE. - There are at present running loose in the streets of this city too many worthless dogs that jump out and snap at children and others passing. Their number could be diminished without any inconvenience to the public at large. As the season is approaching when the canines are subject to attacks of the rabies it would be a wise precaution to put a number of them out of the way.
ELECTION. - The Franklin Building and Loan Association stockholders will meet in Logan Hall Wednesday evening, June 13, 1877, at 7 1/2 o'clock promptly, for the purpose of nominating and electing officers to serve the ensuing year, and receive the Directors fourth annual report. No one in arrears is entitled to vote. - H. Hawk, Secretary.
SMITH - RIGGLE - April 19, by Rev. W. M. Meminger, J. C. Smith to Miss Lucinda M. Riggle, of Antis township.
McFARLAND - BUCK - May 7, by Rev. W. M. Meminger, Crawford E. McFarland to Miss Hannah Buck, both of this county.
WILT - WEAVER - June 7, by Rev. M. Spangler, S. F. Wilt of Marionsville, Blair county, to Miss Sarah J. Weaver of Portage, Cambria county.
MAUK - In this city, on the 8th inst., Mrs. Rebecca Mauk, aged 23 years.
EMSWILER - In this city, on the 8th inst., Mrs. Michael Emswiler, aged 31 years.
LINGLE - In this city, on the 9th inst., Joseph, son of William and Sarah Lingle, aged 18 years and 9 months.
SCHUMBERG - In this city, on the 9th inst., Justus Schumberg, after a long illness, aged 43 years, 5 months and 27 days.
McATEER - In this city, on the 8th inst., Mr. John W. McAteer.
Altoona Tribune, Altoona, Pa., Thursday, June 14, 1877, page 3
NOVEL STRAWBERRY CULTURE.
Theo. H. Cremer, Esq., is experimenting upon a novel mode of cultivating strawberries. Early in the spring he procured a barrel, and perforated it with five rows of auger holes. He then put in a layer of earth to the depth of about five inches, and arranged the plants so that they would grow through the holes. This he continued to do until the barrel was full of earth, and as a gratifying result of the experiment, a luxuriant plant now protrudes from every one of the sixty holes. When the berries ripen, the effect will be beautiful. For beauty, convenience and economy in cultivating the delicious fruit we have never seen anything equal to this device, and we would recommend all who desire a "hanging garden" upon a small scale to try it. - Huntingdon Local News.
SCALLOPED OYSTER-PLANT. - Boil oyster-plant or salsify till very tender, drain off all the water and rub through colander; add butter, pepper, salt and milk, and mix well together. Put in baking dish, cover the top with breadcrumbs, with here and there small bits of butter. Bake a delicate brown. Celery salt may be used for a flavor, but not quite as much as one would of common salt.
Altoona Tribune, Altoona, Pa., Thursday, June 14, 1877, page 4
Return to Top of Page
Blair County PAGenWeb : News
Copyright © 2018 Judy Rogers Banja (JRB) & contributors. All rights reserved.